Research Output 1977 2019

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2019
1 Citation (Scopus)

Acetylsalicylic Acid Treatment and Suppressive Regulation of AKT Accelerate Odontogenic Differentiation of Stem Cells from the Apical Papilla

Tanaka, Y., Sonoda, S., Yamaza, H., Murata, S., Nishida, K., Kyumoto, Y., Uehara, N., Nonaka, K., Kukita, T. & Yamaza, T., May 1 2019, In : Journal of Endodontics. 45, 5, p. 591-598.e6

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Aspirin
Stem Cells
Tooth Root
NFI Transcription Factors
Small Interfering RNA

Bif-1/Endophilin B1/SH3GLB1 regulates bone homeostasis

Touyama, K., Khan, M., Aoki, K., Matsuda, M., Hiura, F., Takakura, N., Matsubara, T., Harada, Y., Hirohashi, Y., Tamura, Y., Gao, J., Mori, K., Kokabu, S., Yasuda, H., Fujita, Y., Watanabe, K., Takahashi, Y., Maki, K. & Jimi, E., Jan 1 2019, In : Journal of Cellular Biochemistry.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Bone
Homeostasis
Bone and Bones
Osteoclasts
Osteogenesis

Ccr7 null mice are protected against diet-induced obesity via Ucp1 upregulation and enhanced energy expenditure

Sano, T., Sanada, T., Sotomaru, Y., Shinjo, T., Iwashita, M., Yamashita, A., Fukuda, T., Sanui, T., Asano, T., Kanematsu, T. & Nishimura, F., Jul 4 2019, In : Nutrition and Metabolism. 16, 1, 43.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Open Access
Energy Metabolism
Up-Regulation
Obesity
Diet
White Adipose Tissue

Constitutive activation of the alternative NF-κB pathway disturbs endochondral ossification

Nakatomi, C., Nakatomi, M., Matsubara, T., Komori, T., Doi-Inoue, T., Ishimaru, N., Weih, F., Iwamoto, T., Matsuda, M., Kokabu, S. & Jimi, E., Apr 1 2019, In : Bone. 121, p. 29-41 13 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Chondrocytes
Osteogenesis
Collagen Type X
Ankyrin Repeat
Matrix Metalloproteinase 13

Deficiency of stress-associated gene Nupr1 increases bone volume by attenuating differentiation of osteoclasts and enhancing differentiation of osteoblasts

Shiraki, M., Xu, X., Iovanna, J. L., Kukita, T., Hirata, H., Kamohara, A., Kubota, Y., Miyamoto, H., Mawatari, M. & Kukita, A., Aug 1 2019, In : FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. 33, 8, p. 8836-8852 17 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Osteocytes
Osteoblasts
Autophagy
Osteoclasts
Osteogenesis

Effects of zinc gluconate carbon dots in cell imaging and inducing osteoblastic differentiation in vitro

Meng, Y., Yang, M., Wang, L., Liu, D., Yu, W., Wang, W. & Take, H., May 1 2019, In : Journal of Jilin University Medicine Edition. 45, 3, p. 504-510 7 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Carbon
Fluorescence
Control Groups
Optical Imaging
Osteocalcin
1 Citation (Scopus)

Fatty acid taste quality information via GPR120 in the anterior tongue of mice

Yasumatsu, K., Iwata, S., Inoue, M. & Ninomiya, Y., May 1 2019, In : Acta Physiologica. 226, 1, e13215.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Tongue
Fatty Acids
Linoleic Acid
Knockout Mice
Chorda Tympani Nerve

Increased expression and altered subcellular distribution of cathepsin B in microglia induce cognitive impairment through oxidative stress and inflammatory response in mice

Ni, J., Take, H., Stoka, V., Meng, J., Hayashi, Y., Peters, C., Qing, H., Turk, V. & Nakanishi, H., Feb 1 2019, In : Aging cell. 18, 1, e12856.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Cathepsin B
Microglia
Oxidative Stress
Reactive Oxygen Species
Mitochondria

Induction of bone repair in rat calvarial defects using a combination of hydroxyapatite with phosphatidylserine liposomes

Hatakeyama, J., Anan, H., Hatakeyama, Y., Matsumoto, N., Takayama, F., Take, H., Matsuzaki, E., Minakami, M., Izumi, T. & Nakanishi, H., Jan 1 2019, In : Journal of Oral Science. 61, 1, p. 111-118 8 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Open Access
Phosphatidylserines
Durapatite
Liposomes
Bone and Bones
Bone Regeneration

Osteoblast lineage-specific cell-surface antigen (A7) regulates osteoclast recruitment and calcification during bone remodeling

Badawy, T., Kyumoto, Y., Uehara, N., Zhang, J., Sonoda, S., Hiura, H., Yamaza, T., Kukita, A. & Kukita, T., Jun 1 2019, In : Laboratory Investigation. 99, 6, p. 866-884 19 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Bone Remodeling
Osteoclasts
Surface Antigens
Osteoblasts
Antigens

Phospholipase C-related inactive protein type-1 deficiency affects anesthetic electroencephalogram activity induced by propofol and etomidate in mice

Furukawa, T., Nikaido, Y., Shimoyama, S., Ogata, Y., Kushikata, T., Hirota, K., Kanematsu, T., Hirata, M. & Ueno, S., Aug 20 2019, In : Journal of Anesthesia. 33, 4, p. 531-542 12 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Etomidate
Protein Deficiency
Type C Phospholipases
Propofol
Anesthetics
5 Citations (Scopus)

Pioneer Factor NeuroD1 Rearranges Transcriptional and Epigenetic Profiles to Execute Microglia-Neuron Conversion

Matsuda, T., Irie, T., Katsurabayashi, S., Hayashi, Y., Nagai, T., Hamazaki, N., Adefuin, A. M. D., Miura, F., Ito, T., Kimura, H., Shirahige, K., Takeda, T., Iwasaki, K., Imamura, T. & Nakashima, K., Feb 6 2019, In : Neuron. 101, 3, p. 472-485.e7

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Microglia
Epigenomics
Neurons
Transcription Factors
Genes

Prolyl Isomerase Pin1 Suppresses Thermogenic Programs in Adipocytes by Promoting Degradation of Transcriptional Co-activator PRDM16

Nakatsu, Y., Matsunaga, Y., Yamamotoya, T., Ueda, K., Inoue, M. K., Mizuno, Y., Nakanishi, M., Sano, T., Yamawaki, Y., Kushiyama, A., Sakoda, H., Fujishiro, M., Ryo, A., Ono, H., Minamino, T., Takahashi, S. I., Ohno, H., Yoneda, M., Takahashi, K., Ishihara, H. & 5 others, Katagiri, H., Nishimura, F., Kanematsu, T., Yamada, T. & Asano, T., Mar 19 2019, In : Cell Reports. 26, 12, p. 3221-3230.e3

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Open Access
Peptidylprolyl Isomerase
Nutrition
Adipocytes
Thermogenesis
Obesity
1 Citation (Scopus)

Structural architecture of a dimeric class C GPCR based on co-trafficking of sweet taste receptor subunits

Park, J., Selvam, B., Sanematsu, K., Shigemura, N., Shukla, D. & Procko, E., Jan 1 2019, In : Journal of Biological Chemistry. 294, 13, p. 4759-4774 16 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

G-Protein-Coupled Receptors
Dimerization
Dimers
Cysteine
Cells
Open Access
Hepatolenticular Degeneration
Deciduous Tooth
Inbred LEC Rats
Hepatocytes
Stem Cells
2018
1 Citation (Scopus)

A Novel Autoantibody against Plexin D1 in Patients with Neuropathic Pain

Fujii, T., Yamasaki, R., Iinuma, K., Tsuchimoto, D., Hayashi, Y., Saitoh, B. Y., Matsushita, T., Kido, M. A., Aishima, S., Nakanishi, H., Nakabeppu, Y. & Kira, J. I., Aug 2018, In : Annals of Neurology. 84, 2, p. 208-224 17 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Neuralgia
Autoantibodies
Spinal Ganglia
Neurons
Unmyelinated Nerve Fibers
6 Citations (Scopus)

A peptide that blocks the interaction of NF-κB p65 subunit with Smad4 enhances BMP2-induced osteogenesis

Urata, M., Kokabu, S., Matsubara, T., Sugiyama, G., Nakatomi, C., Takeuchi, H., Hirata-Tsuchiya, S., Aoki, K., Tamura, Y., Moriyama, Y., Ayukawa, Y., Matsuda, M., Zhang, M., Koyano, K., Kitamura, C. & Jimi, E., Sep 1 2018, In : Journal of cellular physiology. 233, 9, p. 7356-7366 11 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Osteogenesis
Bone Morphogenetic Proteins
Bone
Peptides
Osteoblasts
2 Citations (Scopus)

Bilirubin reversibly affects cell death and odontogenic capacity in stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth

Yamaza, H., Tomoda, E., Sonoda, S., Nonaka, K., Kukita, T. & Yamaza, T., Jul 1 2018, In : Oral Diseases. 24, 5, p. 809-819 11 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Deciduous Tooth
Bilirubin
Cell Death
Stem Cells
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3
2 Citations (Scopus)

Bitter Taste Responses of Gustducin-positive Taste Cells in Mouse Fungiform and Circumvallate Papillae

Yoshida, R., Takai, S., Sanematsu, K., Margolskee, R. F., Shigemura, N. & Ninomiya, Y., Jan 15 2018, In : Neuroscience. 369, p. 29-39 11 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Transient Receptor Potential Channels
Phospholipases
gustducin
Tongue
Phenylthiourea

Brazilian Green Propolis Prevents Cognitive Decline into Mild Cognitive Impairment in Elderly People Living at High Altitude

Zhu, A., Take, H., Zhong, X., Ni, J., Li, Y., Meng, J., Du, C., Zhao, X., Nakanishi, H. & Wu, S., Jan 1 2018, In : Journal of Alzheimer's Disease. 63, 2, p. 551-560 10 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Propolis
Placebos
Inflammation
Serum
Interleukin-1

Cathepsin H deficiency in mice induces excess Th1 cell activation and early-onset of EAE though impairment of toll-like receptor 3 cascade

Okada, R., Zhang, X., Harada, Y., Take, H. & Nakanishi, H., May 1 2018, In : Inflammation Research. 67, 5, p. 371-374 4 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Cathepsin H
Toll-Like Receptor 3
Th1 Cells
Autoimmune Experimental Encephalomyelitis
Interferon Regulatory Factor-3
2 Citations (Scopus)

Diurnal variation of sweet taste recognition thresholds is absent in overweight and obese humans

Sanematsu, K., Nakamura, Y., Nomura, M., Shigemura, N. & Ninomiya, Y., Mar 2 2018, In : Nutrients. 10, 3, 297.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Taste Threshold
Leptin
leptin
diurnal variation
taste sensitivity

Enantioselective monoclonal antibodies for detecting ketamine to crack down on illicit use

Morita, I., Oyama, H., Kanda, Y., Yasuo, M., Ito, A., Toyota, M., Hayashi, Y., Yokoyama, T. & Kobayashi, N., Jan 1 2018, In : Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 41, 1, p. 123-131 9 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Ketamine
Monoclonal Antibodies
Antibodies
Hybridomas
Anti-Idiotypic Antibodies
3 Citations (Scopus)

Exogenous nitric oxide stimulates the odontogenic differentiation of rat dental pulp stem cells

Sonoda, S., Mei, Y. F., Ikiru, A., Danjo, A., Yamaza, H., Hama, S., Nishida, K., Tang, R., Kyumoto, Y., Uehara, N., Kukita, T., Nishimura, F. & Yamaza, T., Dec 1 2018, In : Scientific reports. 8, 1, 3419.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Dental Pulp
Nitric Oxide
Stem Cells
Odontoblasts
Dentin
4 Citations (Scopus)

IL-1β induces pathologically activated osteoclasts bearing extremely high levels of resorbing activity: A possible pathological subpopulation of osteoclasts, accompanied by suppressed expression of kindlin-3 and Talin-1

Shiratori, T., Kyumoto, Y., Kukita, A., Uehara, N., Zhang, J., Koda, K., Kamiya, M., Badawy, T., Tomoda, E., Xu, X., Yamaza, T., Urano, Y., Koyano, K. & Kukita, T., Jan 1 2018, In : Journal of Immunology. 200, 1, p. 218-228 11 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Talin
Osteoclasts
Interleukin-1
Bone and Bones
Confocal Microscopy
1 Citation (Scopus)

Osteocalcin triggers Fas/FasL-mediated necroptosis in adipocytes via activation of p300

Otani, T., Matsuda, M., Mizokami, A., Kitagawa, N., Takeuchi, H., Jimi, E., Inai, T. & Hirata, M., Dec 1 2018, In : Cell Death and Disease. 9, 12, 1194.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Fas Ligand Protein
Osteocalcin
Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein
Adipocytes
Serine
1 Citation (Scopus)
pamidronate
Hyperbilirubinemia
Deciduous Tooth
Cell death
Stem cells
3 Citations (Scopus)

Pmepa1 induced by RANKL-p38 MAPK pathway has a novel role in osteoclastogenesis

Funakubo, N., Xu, X., Kukita, T., Nakamura, S., Miyamoto, H. & Kukita, A., Apr 1 2018, In : Journal of cellular physiology. 233, 4, p. 3105-3118 14 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
Osteogenesis
Androgens
Prostate
Osteoclasts
2 Citations (Scopus)
Tooth Fractures
Tooth
Retrospective Studies
Fixed Partial Denture
zirconium oxide
12 Citations (Scopus)

Sodium butyrate abolishes lipopolysaccharide-induced depression-like behaviors and hippocampal microglial activation in mice

Yamawaki, Y., Yoshioka, N., Nozaki, K., Ito, H., Oda, K., Harada, K., Shirawachi, S., Asano, S., Aizawa, H., Yamawaki, S., Kanematsu, T. & Akagi, H., Feb 1 2018, In : Brain Research. 1680, p. 13-38 26 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Butyric Acid
Lipopolysaccharides
Depression
Epigenomics
Genes
2 Citations (Scopus)

Suppression of AKT-mTOR signal pathway enhances osteogenic/dentinogenic capacity of stem cells from apical papilla

Tanaka, Y., Sonoda, S., Yamaza, H., Murata, S., Nishida, K., Hama, S., Kyumoto, Y., Uehara, N., Nonaka, K., Kukita, T. & Yamaza, T., Nov 29 2018, In : Stem Cell Research and Therapy. 9, 1, 334.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Sirolimus
Stem cells
Signal Transduction
Stem Cells
1-Phosphatidylinositol 4-Kinase
1 Citation (Scopus)

The critical role of IL-10 in the antineuroinflammatory and antioxidative effects of Rheum tanguticum on activated microglia

Meng, J., Ni, J., Take, H., Jiang, M., Zhu, A., Qing, H. & Nakanishi, H., Jan 1 2018, In : Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity. 2018, 1083596.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Rheum
Microglia
Interleukin-10
Catechin
Interleukin-1
1 Citation (Scopus)

The effective design of zirconia coping on titanium base in dental implant superstructure

Mieda, M., Ikiru, A., Matsushita, Y., Morita, T., Ayukawa, Y., Tsukiyama, Y., Sawae, Y. & Koyano, K., Jan 1 2018, In : dental materials journal. 37, 2, p. 237-243 7 p., dmj/2017-022.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Dental prostheses
Dental Implants
Titanium
Zirconia
Fracture toughness
2017
2 Citations (Scopus)

Boi-ogi-to (TJ-20), a Kampo Formula, Suppresses the Inflammatory Bone Destruction and the Expression of Cytokines in the Synovia of Ankle Joints of Adjuvant Arthritic Rats

Zhang, X., Take, H., Liu, Y., Ni, J., Deng, C., Zhao, B., Nakanishi, H., He, J. & Yan, X., Jan 1 2017, In : Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2017, 3679295.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Kampo Medicine
Experimental Arthritis
Ankle Joint
Synovial Fluid
Rheumatoid Arthritis
18 Citations (Scopus)

Cathepsin B plays a critical role in inducing Alzheimer's disease-like phenotypes following chronic systemic exposure to lipopolysaccharide from Porphyromonas gingivalis in mice

Take, H., Ni, J., Liu, Y., Teeling, J. L., Takayama, F., Collcutt, A., Ibbett, P. & Nakanishi, H., Oct 1 2017, In : Brain, Behavior, and Immunity. 65, p. 350-361 12 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Cathepsin B
Porphyromonas gingivalis
Microglia
Lipopolysaccharides
Alzheimer Disease
1 Citation (Scopus)
cathepsin S
PAR-2 Receptor
Porphyromonas gingivalis
Lipopolysaccharides
Interleukin-6
4 Citations (Scopus)

Dysfunction in diurnal synaptic responses and social behavior abnormalities in cathepsin S-deficient mice

Takayama, F., Zhang, X., Hayashi, Y., Take, H. & Nakanishi, H., Aug 19 2017, In : Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 490, 2, p. 447-452 6 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

cathepsin S
Social Behavior
Neurons
Clocks
Cats
7 Citations (Scopus)

Infection of microglia with Porphyromonas gingivalis promotes cell migration and an inflammatory response through the gingipain-mediated activation of protease-activated receptor-2 in mice

Liu, Y., Take, H., Nakanishi, Y., Ni, J., Hayashi, Y., Takayama, F., Zhou, Y., Kadawaki, T. & Nakanishi, H., Dec 1 2017, In : Scientific reports. 7, 1, 11759.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

PAR-2 Receptor
Porphyromonas gingivalis
Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases
Microglia
Cell Movement
15 Citations (Scopus)

In vivo and ex vivo methods of growing a liver bud through tissue connection

Yanagi, Y., Nakayama, K., Taguchi, T., Enosawa, S., Tamura, T., Yoshimaru, K., Matsuura, T., Hayashida, M., Kouhashi, K., Oda, Y., Yamaza, T. & Kobayashi, E., Dec 1 2017, In : Scientific reports. 7, 1, 14085.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Liver
Liver Transplantation
Transplantation
Organoids
Heterotopic Transplantation

Osteoblast-derived Laminin-332 is a novel negative regulator of osteoclastogenesis in bone microenvironments

Uehara, N., Kukita, A., Kyumoto, Y., Yamaza, T., Yasuda, H. & Kukita, T., Oct 1 2017, In : Laboratory Investigation. 97, 10, p. 1235-1244 10 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Osteoblasts
Osteogenesis
Bone and Bones
Laminin
Osteoclasts
1 Citation (Scopus)

Overexpression of Cathepsin E Interferes with Neuronal Differentiation of P19 Embryonal Teratocarcinoma Cells by Degradation of N-cadherin

Harada, Y., Takayama, F., Tanabe, K., Ni, J., Hayashi, Y., Yamamoto, K., Take, H. & Nakanishi, H., Apr 1 2017, In : Cellular and molecular neurobiology. 37, 3, p. 437-443 7 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Cathepsin E
Teratocarcinoma
Cadherins
Neurons
Cell Differentiation
6 Citations (Scopus)
Calcineurin
Type C Phospholipases
Osteoclasts
Bone
Up-Regulation
1 Citation (Scopus)

Phospholipase C-related but catalytically inactive proteins regulate ovarian follicle development

Matsuda, M. & Hirata, M., May 19 2017, In : Journal of Biological Chemistry. 292, 20, p. 8369-8380 12 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

LH Receptors
Ovarian Follicle
Type C Phospholipases
Fertility
Ovary
1 Citation (Scopus)

Phospholipase C-related catalytically inactive protein-knockout mice exhibit uncoupling protein 1 upregulation in adipose tissues following chronic cold exposure

Oue, K., Yamawaki, Y., Asano, S., Mizokami, A., Hirata, M., Irifune, M. & Kanematsu, T., May 1 2017, In : journal of oral biosciences. 59, 2, p. 108-112 5 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Type C Phospholipases
Knockout Mice
Adipose Tissue
Up-Regulation
Tissue
11 Citations (Scopus)

Post-translational palmitoylation controls the voltage gating and lipid raft association of the CALHM1 channel

Taruno, A., Sun, H., Nakajo, K., Murakami, T., Ohsaki, Y., Kido, M. A., Ono, F. & Marunaka, Y., Sep 15 2017, In : Journal of Physiology. 595, 18, p. 6121-6145 25 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Lipoylation
Homeostasis
Calcium
Lipids
Cysteine
2 Citations (Scopus)

Suppression of cell migration by phospholipase C-related catalytically inactive protein-dependent modulation of PI3K signalling

Asano, S., Taniguchi, Y., Yamawaki, Y., Gao, J., Harada, K., Takeuchi, H., Hirata, M. & Kanematsu, T., Dec 1 2017, In : Scientific reports. 7, 1, 5408.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3-Phosphoinositide-Dependent Protein Kinases
Type C Phospholipases
Cell Movement
1-Phosphatidylinositol 4-Kinase
Proteins
11 Citations (Scopus)

The Neuroprotective Effects of Brazilian Green Propolis on Neurodegenerative Damage in Human Neuronal SH-SY5Y Cells

Ni, J., Take, H., Meng, J., Zhu, A., Zhong, X., Wu, S. & Nakanishi, H., Jan 1 2017, In : Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity. 2017, 7984327.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Propolis
Neuroprotective Agents
Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor
Cytoskeleton
Oxidative stress
4 Citations (Scopus)

The role of cholecystokinin in peripheral taste signaling in mice

Yoshida, R., Shin, M., Nakano, K., Takai, S., Inoue, M., Shigemura, N., Takiguchi, S., Nakamura, S. & Ninomiya, Y., Oct 31 2017, In : Frontiers in Physiology. 8, OCT, 866.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Cholecystokinin
Enteroendocrine Cells
Taste Buds
Cholecystokinin Receptors
Intravenous Injections
1 Citation (Scopus)

The transcriptional modulator Ifrd1 controls PGC-1α expression under short-term adrenergic stimulation in brown adipocytes

Park, G., Horie, T., Kanayama, T., Fukasawa, K., Iezaki, T., Onishi, Y., Ozaki, K., Kyumoto, Y., Yoneda, Y., Takarada, T. & Hinoi, E., Mar 1 2017, In : FEBS Journal. 284, 5, p. 784-795 12 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Brown Adipocytes
Adrenergic Agents
Interferons
Modulators
Gene expression
3 Citations (Scopus)

Uncarboxylated osteocalcin induces antitumor immunity against mouse melanoma cell growth

Hayashi, Y., Kawakubo-Yasukochi, T., Mizokami, A., Hazekawa, M., Yakura, T., Naito, M., Takeuchi, H., Nakamura, S. & Hirata, M., Jan 1 2017, In : Journal of Cancer. 8, 13, p. 2478-2486 9 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Osteocalcin
Immunity
Melanoma
Experimental Melanomas
Growth