自然保護政策におけるスポーツハンティングの意義と住民生活への影響: カメルーン共和国・ベヌエ-国立公園地域を事例に

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

アフリカにおける自然保護政策の原型である「原生自然保護」は, 植民地時代におけるスポーツハンティングのための猟獣を保護することを主たる動機の1つとして始まった。しかし, そのための地域住民への強権的な対応に対する批判などから, 1980年代に「住民参加型保全」へとモデルシフトし, 住民への高圧的な対応の克服が目指された。また動物に対する環境倫理思想と野生動物の非消費的な利用の隆盛も関係し, スポーツハンティングは過去のものとされがちであった。しかし, スポーツハンティングは現存するばかりでなく, 多くのアフリカ諸国でその活動を活発化させている。本稿は ,カメルーン共和国のべヌエ国立公園を調査地として,現代のスポーツハンティングの実態に注目し,自然保護政策における位置づけと,地域住民との相互関係を分析する。その結果,スポーツハンティングを,「自然保護政策を経済的に支えうるツール」として現実的に評価しつつも,それがもつ「地域住民を犠牲にしたうえでおこなわれる欧米富裕層の娯楽」という時代錯誤的な性格を是正する必要性があることを指摘するThe early wildlife conservation policy in Africa called "Protectionism" was introduced in order to protect wild animals that played an important role in sport hunting. However in the 1980's, the heavy hand of policy enforcers towards local people was criticized, leading to this policy model shifting from "Protectionism" to "Community-based conservation". Two changes were expected from this shift in policy, namely, an exclusion of the colonialistic practices of conservation and a shift to a community based bottom-up approach. Moreover, with the greater observance of environmental ethics and more widespread non-consumeristic use of wildlife, such as ecotourism, sport hunting has become inconspicuous. This study focuses on the Bénoué National Park in Cameroon and describes the present condition of sport hunting as an activity that is not talked of and explores the position in the conservation project, along with its relationship with local people. The government has leased the area located around the national park to the Western capital and earmarked it as a "hunting zone". Sport hunting in that area is the centerpiece of the tourism that provides financial support for the management of the national park. Further, the local labor force and the income generated result in a reciprocal relationship between the industry, the government, and the local people. On the other hand, local hunting has been regulated in cooperation with international conservation institutes. This has resulted in the creation of tension between the concerned parties. One of the expected results of this case study, i.e., the bottom-up approach, was not observed. This is not the expected outcome of the model shift to communitybased conservation. Moreover, it was evident that the conservation structure and the methodologies adopted, which are reminiscent of colonialism, still remain strong. I also highlight the fact that sport hunting can be considered as an economic support for the implementation of the conservation policy. However, in my opinion, sport hunting should change its character from the present colonialistic mindset of the amusement of Western wealthy class with an exclusion of local people.
Original languageJapanese
Pages (from-to)1-15
Number of pages15
Journalアフリカ研究
Volume73
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Dec 31 2008

Cite this

@article{11afedaad9904c45a45494c9eed5c253,
title = "自然保護政策におけるスポーツハンティングの意義と住民生活への影響: カメルーン共和国・ベヌエ-国立公園地域を事例に",
abstract = "アフリカにおける自然保護政策の原型である「原生自然保護」は, 植民地時代におけるスポーツハンティングのための猟獣を保護することを主たる動機の1つとして始まった。しかし, そのための地域住民への強権的な対応に対する批判などから, 1980年代に「住民参加型保全」へとモデルシフトし, 住民への高圧的な対応の克服が目指された。また動物に対する環境倫理思想と野生動物の非消費的な利用の隆盛も関係し, スポーツハンティングは過去のものとされがちであった。しかし, スポーツハンティングは現存するばかりでなく, 多くのアフリカ諸国でその活動を活発化させている。本稿は ,カメルーン共和国のべヌエ国立公園を調査地として,現代のスポーツハンティングの実態に注目し,自然保護政策における位置づけと,地域住民との相互関係を分析する。その結果,スポーツハンティングを,「自然保護政策を経済的に支えうるツール」として現実的に評価しつつも,それがもつ「地域住民を犠牲にしたうえでおこなわれる欧米富裕層の娯楽」という時代錯誤的な性格を是正する必要性があることを指摘するThe early wildlife conservation policy in Africa called {"}Protectionism{"} was introduced in order to protect wild animals that played an important role in sport hunting. However in the 1980's, the heavy hand of policy enforcers towards local people was criticized, leading to this policy model shifting from {"}Protectionism{"} to {"}Community-based conservation{"}. Two changes were expected from this shift in policy, namely, an exclusion of the colonialistic practices of conservation and a shift to a community based bottom-up approach. Moreover, with the greater observance of environmental ethics and more widespread non-consumeristic use of wildlife, such as ecotourism, sport hunting has become inconspicuous. This study focuses on the B{\'e}nou{\'e} National Park in Cameroon and describes the present condition of sport hunting as an activity that is not talked of and explores the position in the conservation project, along with its relationship with local people. The government has leased the area located around the national park to the Western capital and earmarked it as a {"}hunting zone{"}. Sport hunting in that area is the centerpiece of the tourism that provides financial support for the management of the national park. Further, the local labor force and the income generated result in a reciprocal relationship between the industry, the government, and the local people. On the other hand, local hunting has been regulated in cooperation with international conservation institutes. This has resulted in the creation of tension between the concerned parties. One of the expected results of this case study, i.e., the bottom-up approach, was not observed. This is not the expected outcome of the model shift to communitybased conservation. Moreover, it was evident that the conservation structure and the methodologies adopted, which are reminiscent of colonialism, still remain strong. I also highlight the fact that sport hunting can be considered as an economic support for the implementation of the conservation policy. However, in my opinion, sport hunting should change its character from the present colonialistic mindset of the amusement of Western wealthy class with an exclusion of local people.",
author = "章人 安田",
year = "2008",
month = "12",
day = "31",
language = "Japanese",
volume = "73",
pages = "1--15",
journal = "アフリカ研究",
issn = "0065-4140",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - 自然保護政策におけるスポーツハンティングの意義と住民生活への影響

T2 - カメルーン共和国・ベヌエ-国立公園地域を事例に

AU - 安田, 章人

PY - 2008/12/31

Y1 - 2008/12/31

N2 - アフリカにおける自然保護政策の原型である「原生自然保護」は, 植民地時代におけるスポーツハンティングのための猟獣を保護することを主たる動機の1つとして始まった。しかし, そのための地域住民への強権的な対応に対する批判などから, 1980年代に「住民参加型保全」へとモデルシフトし, 住民への高圧的な対応の克服が目指された。また動物に対する環境倫理思想と野生動物の非消費的な利用の隆盛も関係し, スポーツハンティングは過去のものとされがちであった。しかし, スポーツハンティングは現存するばかりでなく, 多くのアフリカ諸国でその活動を活発化させている。本稿は ,カメルーン共和国のべヌエ国立公園を調査地として,現代のスポーツハンティングの実態に注目し,自然保護政策における位置づけと,地域住民との相互関係を分析する。その結果,スポーツハンティングを,「自然保護政策を経済的に支えうるツール」として現実的に評価しつつも,それがもつ「地域住民を犠牲にしたうえでおこなわれる欧米富裕層の娯楽」という時代錯誤的な性格を是正する必要性があることを指摘するThe early wildlife conservation policy in Africa called "Protectionism" was introduced in order to protect wild animals that played an important role in sport hunting. However in the 1980's, the heavy hand of policy enforcers towards local people was criticized, leading to this policy model shifting from "Protectionism" to "Community-based conservation". Two changes were expected from this shift in policy, namely, an exclusion of the colonialistic practices of conservation and a shift to a community based bottom-up approach. Moreover, with the greater observance of environmental ethics and more widespread non-consumeristic use of wildlife, such as ecotourism, sport hunting has become inconspicuous. This study focuses on the Bénoué National Park in Cameroon and describes the present condition of sport hunting as an activity that is not talked of and explores the position in the conservation project, along with its relationship with local people. The government has leased the area located around the national park to the Western capital and earmarked it as a "hunting zone". Sport hunting in that area is the centerpiece of the tourism that provides financial support for the management of the national park. Further, the local labor force and the income generated result in a reciprocal relationship between the industry, the government, and the local people. On the other hand, local hunting has been regulated in cooperation with international conservation institutes. This has resulted in the creation of tension between the concerned parties. One of the expected results of this case study, i.e., the bottom-up approach, was not observed. This is not the expected outcome of the model shift to communitybased conservation. Moreover, it was evident that the conservation structure and the methodologies adopted, which are reminiscent of colonialism, still remain strong. I also highlight the fact that sport hunting can be considered as an economic support for the implementation of the conservation policy. However, in my opinion, sport hunting should change its character from the present colonialistic mindset of the amusement of Western wealthy class with an exclusion of local people.

AB - アフリカにおける自然保護政策の原型である「原生自然保護」は, 植民地時代におけるスポーツハンティングのための猟獣を保護することを主たる動機の1つとして始まった。しかし, そのための地域住民への強権的な対応に対する批判などから, 1980年代に「住民参加型保全」へとモデルシフトし, 住民への高圧的な対応の克服が目指された。また動物に対する環境倫理思想と野生動物の非消費的な利用の隆盛も関係し, スポーツハンティングは過去のものとされがちであった。しかし, スポーツハンティングは現存するばかりでなく, 多くのアフリカ諸国でその活動を活発化させている。本稿は ,カメルーン共和国のべヌエ国立公園を調査地として,現代のスポーツハンティングの実態に注目し,自然保護政策における位置づけと,地域住民との相互関係を分析する。その結果,スポーツハンティングを,「自然保護政策を経済的に支えうるツール」として現実的に評価しつつも,それがもつ「地域住民を犠牲にしたうえでおこなわれる欧米富裕層の娯楽」という時代錯誤的な性格を是正する必要性があることを指摘するThe early wildlife conservation policy in Africa called "Protectionism" was introduced in order to protect wild animals that played an important role in sport hunting. However in the 1980's, the heavy hand of policy enforcers towards local people was criticized, leading to this policy model shifting from "Protectionism" to "Community-based conservation". Two changes were expected from this shift in policy, namely, an exclusion of the colonialistic practices of conservation and a shift to a community based bottom-up approach. Moreover, with the greater observance of environmental ethics and more widespread non-consumeristic use of wildlife, such as ecotourism, sport hunting has become inconspicuous. This study focuses on the Bénoué National Park in Cameroon and describes the present condition of sport hunting as an activity that is not talked of and explores the position in the conservation project, along with its relationship with local people. The government has leased the area located around the national park to the Western capital and earmarked it as a "hunting zone". Sport hunting in that area is the centerpiece of the tourism that provides financial support for the management of the national park. Further, the local labor force and the income generated result in a reciprocal relationship between the industry, the government, and the local people. On the other hand, local hunting has been regulated in cooperation with international conservation institutes. This has resulted in the creation of tension between the concerned parties. One of the expected results of this case study, i.e., the bottom-up approach, was not observed. This is not the expected outcome of the model shift to communitybased conservation. Moreover, it was evident that the conservation structure and the methodologies adopted, which are reminiscent of colonialism, still remain strong. I also highlight the fact that sport hunting can be considered as an economic support for the implementation of the conservation policy. However, in my opinion, sport hunting should change its character from the present colonialistic mindset of the amusement of Western wealthy class with an exclusion of local people.

M3 - 記事

VL - 73

SP - 1

EP - 15

JO - アフリカ研究

JF - アフリカ研究

SN - 0065-4140

IS - 1

ER -