Background: 15-Deoxy-Δ 12,14-prostaglandin J 2 (15d-PGJ 2), a major prostanoid metabolized from prostaglandin D 2 (PGD 2), plays an important role in various biological processes including inflammatory responses. 15d-PGJ 2 exerts its effects through two major receptors, chemoattractant receptor- homologous molecule expressed on Th2 cells (CRTH2) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ). The 15d-PGJ 2/PPARγ system, in particular, regulates numerous biological processes including adipogenesis, apoptosis, and inflammation. Although our studies have shown that PGD 2 (metabolic precursor of 15d-PGJ 2) induces IL-8 and GM-CSF production, the role of 15d-PGJ 2 (metabolite of PGD 2) is unknown in human bronchial epithelial cells. In this study, we investigated the function of 15d-PGJ 2 on a human airway epithelial cell line: NCI-H 292. Method: NCI-H 292 cells were cultured in the presence of various stimulants. The resulting supernatants were used for ELISA analysis. Results: We demonstrated that 15d-PGJ 2 induced production of IL-8 and GM-CSF from NCI-H 292. 13,14-Dihydro-15-keto- PGD 2(DK-PGD 2) (CRTH2 agonist) and troglitazone (PPARγ agonist) failed to increase the production of these cytokines. Pretreatment with ramatroban (CRTH2 antagonist) and GW9662 (PPARγ antagonist) did not reduce the production of these cytokines. 15d-PGJ 2 activated the ERK1/2 signaling pathway in a time-dependent manner. Conclusion: These data showed that 15d-PGJ 2 is a potent inducer of IL-8 and GM-CSF production through ERK1/2 kinase activation, but this is independent of CRTH2 or PPARγ activation.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Immunology and Allergy