Find Research Outputs

2019
2 Citations (Scopus)

Automatic Generation of Typographic Font from Small Font Subset

Miyazaki, T., Tsuchiya, T., Sugaya, Y., Omachi, S., Iwamura, M., Uchida, S. & Kise, K., Jan 1 2019, (Accepted/In press) In : IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Automatic Tour Video Summarization Focusing on Scene Change for Advance Touristic Experience

Kanaya, Y., Kawanaka, S., Suwa, H., Arakawa, Y. & Yasumoto, K., Apr 22 2019, Proceedings - 2nd International Conference on Multimedia Information Processing and Retrieval, MIPR 2019. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., p. 391-392 2 p. 8695317. (Proceedings - 2nd International Conference on Multimedia Information Processing and Retrieval, MIPR 2019).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Autophagy controls reactive oxygen species homeostasis in guard cells that is essential for stomatal opening

Yamauchi, S., Mano, S., Oikawa, K., Hikino, K., Teshima, K. M., Kimori, Y., Nishimura, M., Shimazaki, K. I. & Takemiya, A., Sep 17 2019, In : Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 116, 38, p. 19187-19192 6 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Open Access
Autophagy
Reactive Oxygen Species
Homeostasis
Peroxisomes
Arabidopsis

Axial compressive residual ultimate strength of circular tube after lateral collision

Li, R., Yanagihara, D. & Yoshikawa, T., Jan 1 2019, In : International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering. 11, 1, p. 396-408 13 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Axial compression
Load limits
Compressive stress
Application programming interfaces (API)
Plastic deformation
1 Citation (Scopus)
Lactams
Schiff Bases
Chromophores
Amines
Infrared radiation
2 Citations (Scopus)

Backward- and Forward-looking Shadow Prices in Inclusive Wealth Accounting: An Example of Renewable Energy Capital

Yamaguchi, R. & Managi, S., Feb 1 2019, In : Ecological Economics. 156, p. 337-349 13 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

natural capital
energy
sustainability
accounting
price

Baicalein Inhibits Stx1 and 2 of EHE: Effects of Baicalein on the Cytotoxicity, Production, and Secretion of Shiga Toxins of Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli

Vinh, P. T., Shinohara, Y., Yamada, A., Duc, H. M., Nakayama, M., Ozawa, T., Sato, J., Masuda, Y., Honjoh, K. I. & Miyamoto, T., Aug 29 2019, In : Toxins. 11, 9

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Open Access
Shiga Toxins
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli
Cytotoxicity
Escherichia coli
flavone

Barrier transmission for proton emission during the intranuclear cascade process

Yamaguchi, Y., Uozumi, Y. & Nakano, M., Sep 23 2019, In : Physical Review C. 100, 3, 034617.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

cascades
protons
cross sections
coefficients
evaporation

Baseline demographics and clinical characteristics in the all nippon af in the elderly (ANAFIE) registry

Koretsune, Y., Yamashita, T., Akao, M., Atarashi, H., Ikeda, T., Okumura, K., Shimizu, W., Tsutsui, H., Toyoda, K., Hirayama, A., Yasaka, M., Yamaguchi, T., Teramukai, S., Kimura, T., Kaburagi, J., Takita, A. & Inoue, H., Jan 1 2019, In : Circulation Journal. 83, 7, p. 1538-1545 8 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Open Access
Registries
Demography
Anticoagulants
Atrial Fibrillation
Prospective Studies

Base-Resolution Methylome of Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells Used in the First Trial of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Based Autologous Transplantation

Araki, H., Miura, F., Watanabe, A., Morinaga, C., Kitaoka, F., Kitano, Y., Sakai, N., Shibata, Y., Terada, M., Goto, S., Yamanaka, S., Takahashi, M. & Ito, T., Oct 8 2019, In : Stem Cell Reports. 13, 4, p. 761-774 14 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Open Access
Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells
Retinal Pigments
Autologous Transplantation
Stem cells
Epithelial Cells

Batch tournament selection for genetic programming

De Melo, V. V., Vargas, D. V. & Banzhaf, W., Jul 13 2019, GECCO 2019 - Proceedings of the 2019 Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference. Association for Computing Machinery, Inc, p. 994-1002 9 p. (GECCO 2019 - Proceedings of the 2019 Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Symbolic Regression
Genetic programming
Tournament
Genetic Programming
Batch

Bayesian inference for stable Lévy–driven stochastic differential equations with high-frequency data

Jasra, A., Kamatani, K. & Masuda, H., Jun 1 2019, In : Scandinavian Journal of Statistics. 46, 2, p. 545-574 30 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

High-frequency Data
Bayesian inference
Stochastic Equations
Differential equation
Metropolis-Hastings

BeatSync: Walking Pace Control Through Beat Synchronization between Music and Walking

Otsubo, A., Suwa, H., Arakawa, Y. & Yasumoto, K., Mar 1 2019, 2019 IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications Workshops, PerCom Workshops 2019. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., p. 367-369 3 p. 8730833. (2019 IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications Workshops, PerCom Workshops 2019).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Synchronization
Smartphones
Blood pressure
Medical problems
Music

Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome with asymmetric mosaic of paternal disomy causing hemihyperplasia

Yamada, T., Sugiyama, G., Higashimoto, K., Nakashima, A., Nakano, H., Sumida, T., Soejima, H. & Mori, Y., Mar 1 2019, In : Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology. 127, 3, p. e84-e88

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome
Tongue
Uniparental Disomy
Macroglossia
Glossectomy

Bedrock sculpting under an active alpine glacier revealed from cosmic-ray muon radiography

Nishiyama, R., Ariga, A., Ariga, T., Lechmann, A., Mair, D., Pistillo, C., Scampolia, P., Valla, P. G., Vladymyrov, M., Ereditato, A. & Schlunegger, F., 2019, In : Scientific Reports. 6970.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Open Access

Bedrock sculpting under an active alpine glacier revealed from cosmic-ray muon radiography

Nishiyama, R., Ariga, A., Ariga, T., Lechmann, A., Mair, D., Pistillo, C., Scampoli, P., Valla, P. G., Vladymyrov, M., Ereditato, A. & Schlunegger, F., Dec 1 2019, In : Scientific reports. 9, 1, 6970.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Open Access
Mesons
Ice Cover
Radiography
Ice
Switzerland

BELL1-like homeobox genes regulate inflorescence architecture and meristem maintenance in rice

Ikeda, T., Tanaka, W., Toriba, T., Suzuki, C., Maeno, A., Tsuda, K., Shiroishi, T., Kurata, T., Sakamoto, T., Murai, M., Matsusaka, H., Kumamaru, T. & Hirano, H. Y., May 1 2019, In : Plant Journal. 98, 3, p. 465-478 14 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Inflorescence
homeotic genes
Meristem
Homeobox Genes
meristems
2 Citations (Scopus)

Bending strength of CFRP laminated adhesive joints fabricated by vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding

Abusrea, M. R., Han, S. W., Arakawa, K. & Choi, N. S., Jan 1 2019, In : Composites Part B: Engineering. 156, p. 8-16 9 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Adhesive joints
Resin transfer molding
Carbon fiber reinforced plastics
Bending strength
Carbon fibers

Benefits of using a self-expandable metallic stent as a bridge to surgery for right- and left-sided obstructive colorectal cancers

Clinical Study Group of Osaka University (CSGO), Colorectal Group, Jan 1 2019, In : Surgery today. 49, 1, p. 32-37 6 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Colorectal Neoplasms
Patient Rights
Laparoscopy
Self Expandable Metallic Stents
Colonic Neoplasms

Bereavement care in Japanese pediatrics: Pediatrician awareness in practice

Ayaka, F. & Hamada, Y., Jul 1 2019, In : Pediatrics International. 61, 7, p. 658-663 6 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Hospice Care
Pediatrics
Delivery of Health Care
Japan
Education
1 Citation (Scopus)

Better Oral Hygiene Habits Are Associated With a Lower Incidence of Peritoneal Dialysis-Related Peritonitis

Oka, H., Yamada, S., Kamimura, T., Aihara, S., Hyodo, M., Terakado, N., Harada, A., Nakano, T., Tsuruya, K. & Kitazono, T., Apr 1 2019, In : Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis. 23, 2, p. 187-194 8 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Oral Hygiene
Peritoneal Dialysis
Peritonitis
Habits
Incidence

Bif-1/Endophilin B1/SH3GLB1 regulates bone homeostasis

Touyama, K., Khan, M., Aoki, K., Matsuda, M., Hiura, F., Takakura, N., Matsubara, T., Harada, Y., Hirohashi, Y., Tamura, Y., Gao, J., Mori, K., Kokabu, S., Yasuda, H., Fujita, Y., Watanabe, K., Takahashi, Y., Maki, K. & Jimi, E., Nov 1 2019, In : Journal of Cellular Biochemistry. 120, 11, p. 18793-18804 12 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Bone
Homeostasis
Bone and Bones
Osteoclasts
Osteogenesis
1 Citation (Scopus)

Biliary Stricture: The Achilles Heel of Pediatric Living Donor Liver Transplantation

Yoshizumi, T., Harada, N. & Mori, M., Sep 1 2019, In : Transplantation. 103, 9, p. 1758-1759 2 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Living Donors
Liver Transplantation
Pathologic Constriction
Pediatrics
Bile Ducts

Bilirubin reduces visceral obesity and insulin resistance by suppression of inflammatory cytokines

Takei, R., Inoue, T., Sonoda, N., Kohjima, M., Okamoto, M., Sakamoto, R., Inoguchi, T. & Ogawa, Y., Jan 1 2019, In : PloS one. 14, 10, e0223302.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Open Access
Abdominal Obesity
bilirubin
Bilirubin
insulin resistance
Insulin Resistance
2 Citations (Scopus)

Billroth-I reconstruction using an overlap method in totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomy: propensity score matched cohort study of short- and long-term outcomes compared with Roux-en-Y reconstruction

Watanabe, Y., Watanabe, M., Suehara, N., Saimura, M., Mizuuchi, Y., Nishihara, K., Iwashita, T. & Nakano, T., Jan 1 2019, (Accepted/In press) In : Surgical endoscopy. 33, 12, p. 3990-4002 13 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Gastroenterostomy
Propensity Score
Gastrectomy
Cohort Studies
Common Bile Duct

Biochemical analysis of nucleosome targeting by Tn5 transposase

Sato, S., Arimura, Y., Kujirai, T., Harada, A., Maehara, K., Nogami, J., Ohkawa, Y. & Kurumizaka, H., Aug 1 2019, In : Open Biology. 9, 8, 190116.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Open Access
Nucleosomes
DNA
Tn5 transposase
DNA sequences
Genomics
3 Citations (Scopus)

Biodegradation of PET: Current Status and Application Aspects

Taniguchi, I., Yoshida, S., Hiraga, K., Miyamoto, K., Kimura, Y. & Oda, K., May 3 2019, In : ACS Catalysis. 9, 5, p. 4089-4105 17 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Biodegradation
Enzymes
Hydrolases
Degradation
Plastics

Biofertilizer production for agronomic application and evaluation of its symbiotic effectiveness in soybeans

Htwe, A. Z., Moh, S. M., Moe, K. & Yamakawa, T., Mar 27 2019, In : Agronomy. 9, 4, 162.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Open Access
biofertilizers
soybeans
nitrogen fixation
nodulation
seed yield

Biogas Power Generation with SOFC to Demonstrate Energy Circulation Suitable for Mekong Delta, Vietnam

Shiratori, Y., Sakamoto, M., Nguyen, T. G. H., Yamakawa, T., Kitaoka, T., Orishima, H., Matsubara, H., Watanabe, Y., Nakatsuka, S., Doan, T. C. D. & Dang, C. M., Jan 1 2019, In : Fuel Cells. 19, 4, p. 346-353 8 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Biogas
Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC)
Power generation
Bagasse
Ponds

Bioinspired Approach to Silica Nanoparticle Synthesis Using Amine-Containing Block Copoly(vinyl ethers): Realizing Controlled Anisotropy

Sugawara-Narutaki, A., Tsuboike, S., Oda, Y., Shimojima, A., Landenberger, K. B., Okubo, T. & Aoshima, S., Aug 20 2019, In : Langmuir. 35, 33, p. 10846-10854 9 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Silicon Dioxide
Amines
Ethers
ethers
amines

Biological fingerprint using scout computed tomographic images for positive patient identification

Ueda, Y., Morishita, J. & Hongyo, T., Oct 1 2019, In : Medical physics. 46, 10, p. 4600-4609 10 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Dermatoglyphics
Tomography
ROC Curve
Pelvis
Abdomen

Biological modulation in the seasonal variation of dissolved oxygen concentration in the upper Japan Sea

Kim, H., Takayama, K., Hirose, N., Onitsuka, G., Yoshida, T. & Yanagi, T., Jun 3 2019, In : Journal of Oceanography. 75, 3, p. 257-271 15 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

dissolved oxygen
seasonal variation
autumn
biological processes
sea
1 Citation (Scopus)

Biomarkers for individualized dosage adjustments in immunosuppressive therapy using calcineurin inhibitors after organ transplantation

Fu, R., Tajima, S., Suetsugu, K., Watanabe, H., Egashira, N. & Masuda, S., Feb 1 2019, In : Acta Pharmacologica Sinica. 40, 2, p. 151-159 9 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Organ Transplantation
Immunosuppressive Agents
Biomarkers
Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A
Therapeutics
9 Citations (Scopus)

Biomarkers of Dietary Omega-6 Fatty Acids and Incident Cardiovascular Disease and Mortality: An Individual-Level Pooled Analysis of 30 Cohort Studies

Marklund, M., Wu, J. H. Y., Imamura, F., Del Gobbo, L. C., Fretts, A., De Goede, J., Shi, P., Tintle, N., Wennberg, M., Aslibekyan, S., Chen, T. A., De Oliveira Otto, M. C., Hirakawa, Y., Eriksen, H. H., Kröger, J., Laguzzi, F., Lankinen, M., Murphy, R. A., Prem, K., Samieri, C. & 67 others, Virtanen, J., Wood, A. C., Wong, K., Yang, W. S., Zhou, X., Baylin, A., Boer, J. M. A., Brouwer, I. A., Campos, H., Chaves, P. H. M., Chien, K. L., De Faire, U., Djoussé, L., Eiriksdottir, G., El-Abbadi, N., Forouhi, N. G., Michael Gaziano, J., Geleijnse, J. M., Gigante, B., Giles, G., Guallar, E., Gudnason, V., Harris, T., Harris, W. S., Helmer, C., Hellenius, M. L., Hodge, A., Hu, F. B., Jacques, P. F., Jansson, J. H., Kalsbeek, A., Khaw, K. T., Koh, W. P., Laakso, M., Leander, K., Lin, H. J., Lind, L., Luben, R., Luo, J., Mcknight, B., Mursu, J., Ninomiya, T., Overvad, K., Psaty, B. M., Rimm, E., Schulze, M. B., Siscovick, D., Skjelbo Nielsen, M., Smith, A. V., Steffen, B. T., Steffen, L., Sun, Q., Sundström, J., Tsai, M. Y., Tunstall-Pedoe, H., Uusitupa, M. I. J., Van Dam, R. M., Veenstra, J., Monique Verschuren, W. M., Wareham, N., Willett, W., Woodward, M., Yuan, J. M., Micha, R., Lemaitre, R. N., Mozaffarian, D. & Risérus, U., May 21 2019, In : Circulation. 139, 21, p. 2422-2436 15 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Omega-6 Fatty Acids
Linoleic Acid
Cohort Studies
Cardiovascular Diseases
Biomarkers

Biomass compensation: Behind the diversity gradients of tidepool fishes

Arakaki, S. & Tokeshi, M., Oct 1 2019, In : Population Ecology. 61, 4, p. 396-405 10 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

biomass
fish
species diversity
body size
species richness

Biomechanical analysis of four different medial row configurations of suture bridge rotator cuff repair

Senju, T., Okada, T., Takeuchi, N., Kozono, N., Nakanishi, Y., Higaki, H., Shimoto, T. & Nakashima, Y., Oct 2019, In : Clinical Biomechanics. 69, p. 191-196 6 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Rotator Cuff
Sutures
Suture Techniques
Tendons
Tears

Biomimetic artificial cartilage: Fibre-reinforcement of PVA hydrogel to promote biphasic lubrication mechanism

Sakai, N., Yarimitsu, S., Sawae, Y., Komori, M. & Murakami, T., Mar 1 2019, In : Biosurface and Biotribology. 5, 1, p. 13-19 7 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Open Access
Lubrication
Biomimetics
Hydrogel
Cartilage
Fiber reinforced materials

Bio-mimic motion of 3D-printed gel structures dispersed with magnetic particles

Shinoda, H., Azukizawa, S., Maeda, K. & Tsumori, F., Jan 1 2019, In : Journal of the Electrochemical Society. 166, 9, p. B3235-B3239

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Open Access
Particles (particulate matter)
Gels
Actuators
Magnetic fields
Magnetic anisotropy
1 Citation (Scopus)

Bio-mimic motion of gel material dispersed with magnetic particles

Shinoda, H., Azukizawa, S., Maeda, K. & Tsumori, F., Jan 1 2019, ECS Transactions. Nagahara, L., Masubuchi, Y., Shiba, T., Ito, K., Sekhar, P., Yanagida, M., Dos Santos, F. D., Milano, G., Furukawa, H., Chu, T-Y., Saito, T., Kakugo, A., Matsui, H., Tokito, S., Ito, H., Khosla, A., Fukushima, K., Yoshida, T., Bhansali, S., Kaltenbrunner, M., White, M., Nakai, A. & Masuhara, A. (eds.). 1 ed. Electrochemical Society Inc., p. 89-97 9 p. (ECS Transactions; vol. 88, no. 1).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Particles (particulate matter)
Printing
Actuators
Gels
3D printers

Biophysical characterization and single-chain Fv construction of a neutralizing antibody to measles virus

Tadokoro, T., Jahan, M. L., Ito, Y., Tahara, M., Chen, S., Imai, A., Sugimura, N., Yoshida, K., Saito, M., Ose, T., Hashiguchi, T., Takeda, M., Fukuhara, H. & Maneaka, K., Jan 1 2019, (Accepted/In press) In : FEBS Journal.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Single-Chain Antibodies
Measles virus
Neutralizing Antibodies
Viruses
Antibodies

Biosynthetic Short Neuropeptides: A Rational Theory Based on Experimental Results for the Missing Pain-Relief Opioid Endomorphin Precursor Gene

Matsushima, A., Sese, J. & Koyanagi, K. O., Jan 1 2019, In : ChemBioChem. 20, 16, p. 2054-2058 5 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Neuropeptides
Opioid Analgesics
Genes
Pain
Peptides

Bipolar thianthrene derivatives exhibiting room temperature phosphorescence for oxygen sensing

Tomkeviciene, A., Dabulienė, A., Matulaitis, T., Guzauskas, M., Andruleviciene, V., Grazulevicius, J. V., Yamanaka, Y., Yano, Y. & Ono, T., Nov 1 2019, In : Dyes and Pigments. 170, 107605.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Phosphorescence
Oxygen
Derivatives
Quantum yield
Oxygen Compounds

Bis(1,3-dithiol-2-ylidene)-Substituted Subtriazachlorin: A Subphthalocyanine Analogue with Redox Properties

Wang, Y., Mori, S., Furuta, H. & Shimizu, S., Aug 5 2019, In : Angewandte Chemie - International Edition. 58, 32, p. 10975-10979 5 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Ethane
Infrared radiation
Molecules
Electrons
Oxidation-Reduction
1 Citation (Scopus)

Bis-copper(II) Complex of Triply-linked Corrole Dimer and Its Dication

Ooi, S., Tanaka, T., Ikeue, T., Yamasumi, K., Ueta, K., Shimizu, D., Ishida, M., Furuta, H. & Osuka, A., May 15 2019, In : Chemistry - An Asian Journal. 14, 10, p. 1771-1776 6 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Dimers
Copper
Ligands
Oxidation-Reduction
Metals

Bis-palladium(II) complex of doubly N-confused octaphyrin(1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1): Möbius aromaticity and chiroptical properties

Basumatary, B., Mitsuno, K., Ishida, M. & Furuta, H., Jan 1 2019, (Accepted/In press) In : Journal of Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Palladium
Chemical shift
Infrared radiation
Enantiomers
Complexation

Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the rib

Miake, S., Nakahara, T., Kudo, K. & Furue, M., Jul 1 2019, In : European Journal of Dermatology. 29, 4, p. 442-443 2 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalLetter

Bisphosphonate-Associated Osteonecrosis of the Jaw
Ribs

Bitter taste receptor T2R7 and umami taste receptor subunit T1R1 are expressed highly in Vimentin-negative taste bud cells in chickens

Yoshida, Y., Wang, Z., Tehrani, K. F., Pendleton, E. G., Tanaka, R., Mortensen, L. J., Nishimura, S., Tabata, S., Liu, H. X. & Kawabata, F., Apr 2 2019, In : Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 511, 2, p. 280-286 7 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Taste Buds
Vimentin
Chickens
Genes
Tissue
1 Citation (Scopus)

BiVO 4 /BiOX (X = F, Cl, Br, I) heterojunctions for degrading organic dye under visible light

Razavi-Khosroshahi, H., Mohammadzadeh, S., Hojamberdiev, M., Kitano, S., Yamauchi, M. & Fuji, M., Jan 1 2019, In : Advanced Powder Technology.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Heterojunctions
Coloring Agents
Dyes
Semiconductor materials
Charge carriers

Blood urea nitrogen is independently associated with renal outcomes in Japanese patients with stage 3-5 chronic kidney disease: A prospective observational study

Seki, M., Nakayama, M., Sakoh, T., Yoshitomi, R., Fukui, A., Katafuchi, E., Tsuda, S., Nakano, T., Tsuruya, K. & Kitazono, T., Apr 2 2019, In : BMC Nephrology. 20, 1, 115.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Open Access
Blood Urea Nitrogen
Chronic Renal Insufficiency
Observational Studies
Osmolar Concentration
Prospective Studies