Mycobacterium chelonae (M. chelonae) is widely distributed in the environment and particularly infects immunosuppressed patients. Its infection is characterized by various and multiple cutaneous lesions. In the present case, an elderly patient with long-term use of immunosuppressive agents had a relapse of cutaneous M. chelonae infection 8 months after treatment. This case was considered to involve latent infection of M. chelonae that developed resistance to antibiotics. Cutaneous M. chelonae infection has often been treated by antibiotic monotherapy. However, some cases that developed resistance to clarithromycin, a key drug for treating this infection, have been reported, so it is recommended that treatment proceed via a combination of antibiotics. Case reports of cutaneous M. chelonae infection are increasing, so further studies on the choice of antibiotics, and the duration and endpoint of treatment are required.
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