A case of X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome (XLP) with multiple nodular lesions in the brain

Takahisa Tateishi, Kimihiro Tanaka, Yoshikiyo Ito, Kunihiko Mitsuo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

We reported a case of X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome (XLP) with multiple nodular lesions in the brain and lungs. A 21-year-old man was admitted because of one month history of low grade fever, headache, nausea, and amnesia. He developed agammaglobulinemia following Epstein-Barr virus infection at 3-year-old, and thereafter was administered 7.5g of immunoglobulin every 3 weeks with a diagnosis of XLP. Physical examination was unremarkable on admission. Neurological examination revealed disorientation of time, and bilateral gaze-evoked nystagmus. Neuropsychological tests demonstrated impairment of recent memory and calculation. Pleocytosis (83/μl) and increase of protein (1,269mg/dl) and IgG (141mg/dl) in the CSF were observed. Brain MRI showed multiple nodular lesions with high intense signal on T2-weighted images and Gd-DTPA enhancement on T1-weighted images. Chest CT showed multiple nodular lesions in the bilateral lungs. The needle lung biopsy was performed, which showed infiltration of lymphocytes around the vessels. An immunohistochemical study showed that the infiltrating cells were mainly CD8 positive T lymphocytes. B lymphocyte and plasma cells were not seen. The histological findings excluded intravascular malignant lymphoma and lymphomatoid granulomatosis. Therefore we diagnosed lymphoid vasculitis. The patient developed pancytopenia caused by hemophagocytic syndrome 48 days after admission and was treated with l g of methylprednisolone per day for 3 days and a tapered dose of steroid (500mg to 125mg of methylprednisolone and 60mg to 10mg of predonisolone) for 21 days, which resulted in the improvement of clinical features (hemophagocytic syndrome and central nervous system symptoms) and the abnormal CSF findings. The multiple nodular lesions in the brain and the lungs shrank 1 month after treatment and disappeared 11 months later. There are few reports concerning lymphoid vasculitis with XLP, and no effective treatment has been described. Our case suggests that steroid therapy may be useful for the treatment of lymphoid vasculitis in XLP.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)254-260
Number of pages7
JournalClinical Neurology
Volume46
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Apr 1 2006

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Clinical Neurology

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    Tateishi, T., Tanaka, K., Ito, Y., & Mitsuo, K. (2006). A case of X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome (XLP) with multiple nodular lesions in the brain. Clinical Neurology, 46(4), 254-260.