Pigment-dispersing factor (PDF), an 18-amino acid neuropeptide, is a principal circadian neuromodulator functioning downstream of the insect brain's circadian clock, modulating daily rhythms of locomotor activity. Recently, we found that PDF precursors of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus comprise a nuclear localization signal (NLS). Moreover, the nuclear localization of PDF immunoreactivity and the translocation of GFP-fused PDF precursor into the nucleus have both been demonstrated. These suggest a fundamental role for PDF peptide in the circadian clock system within the nucleus, in addition to its role in downstream neural events. In the present study, we carried out the cDNA cloning of PDF from adult brains of the last-summer cicada Meimuna opalifera, and found that an isolated clone (545 bp) encodes an ordinary PDF precursor protein. PDF peptide itself shows a high sequence identity (78-94%) and similarity (89-100%) to insect PDFs and also to the crustacean β-PDH peptides. The computer-assisted sequence analysis of PDF precursor revealed a possible translocation into the nucleus, despite the lack of a definite NLS-like sequence. Using immunocytochemistry, the optic lobes of M. opalifera revealed PDF-immunoreactive neurons in both the medulla and lamina neuropiles. All these PDF cells exhibited prominent immunolabeling of both their perikarya and axons, but not their nuclei. Our results provide the first structural and immunocytochemical identification of PDF neurons in Hemiptera.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Animal Science and Zoology