A Coded Aperture for Watermark Extraction from Defocused Images

Hiroki Hamasaki, Shingo Takeshita, Kentaro Nakai, Toshiki Sonoda, Hiroshi Kawasaki, Hajime Nagahara, Satoshi Ono

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Abstract

Barcodes and 2D codes are widely used for various purposes, such as electronic payments and product management. Special code readers, and consumer smartphones can be used to scan codes; thus concerns about fraud and authenticity are important. Embedding watermarks in 2D codes, which allows simultaneous recognition and tamper detection by simply analyzing the captured pattern without requiring an additional device is considered a promising solution. However, smartphone cameras frequently suffer misfocus especially if the target object is too close to the lens, which makes the captured image defocused and results in failure to read watermarks. In this paper, we propose the use of a coded aperture imaging technique to recover watermarks. We have designed a coded aperture that is robust against defocus blur by optimizing the aperture pattern using a genetic algorithm. In addition, we have developed a programmable coded aperture that includes an actual optical process that works in an optimization loop; thus, the complicated effects of the optical aberrations can be considered. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can extend the depth of field for watermark extraction to 3.1 times wider than that of a general circular aperture.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationComputer Vision – ACCV 2018 - 14th Asian Conference on Computer Vision, Revised Selected Papers
EditorsGreg Mori, Hongdong Li, C.V. Jawahar, Konrad Schindler
PublisherSpringer Verlag
Pages231-246
Number of pages16
ISBN (Print)9783030208752
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2019
Event14th Asian Conference on Computer Vision, ACCV 2018 - Perth, Australia
Duration: Dec 2 2018Dec 6 2018

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)
Volume11366 LNCS
ISSN (Print)0302-9743
ISSN (Electronic)1611-3349

Conference

Conference14th Asian Conference on Computer Vision, ACCV 2018
CountryAustralia
CityPerth
Period12/2/1812/6/18

Fingerprint

Smartphones
Watermark
Aberrations
Lenses
Genetic algorithms
Cameras
Imaging techniques
Depth of Field
Defocus
Aberration
Lens
Camera
Imaging
Genetic Algorithm
Electronics
Target
Optimization
Experimental Results
Demonstrate

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Theoretical Computer Science
  • Computer Science(all)

Cite this

Hamasaki, H., Takeshita, S., Nakai, K., Sonoda, T., Kawasaki, H., Nagahara, H., & Ono, S. (2019). A Coded Aperture for Watermark Extraction from Defocused Images. In G. Mori, H. Li, C. V. Jawahar, & K. Schindler (Eds.), Computer Vision – ACCV 2018 - 14th Asian Conference on Computer Vision, Revised Selected Papers (pp. 231-246). (Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics); Vol. 11366 LNCS). Springer Verlag. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-20876-9_15

A Coded Aperture for Watermark Extraction from Defocused Images. / Hamasaki, Hiroki; Takeshita, Shingo; Nakai, Kentaro; Sonoda, Toshiki; Kawasaki, Hiroshi; Nagahara, Hajime; Ono, Satoshi.

Computer Vision – ACCV 2018 - 14th Asian Conference on Computer Vision, Revised Selected Papers. ed. / Greg Mori; Hongdong Li; C.V. Jawahar; Konrad Schindler. Springer Verlag, 2019. p. 231-246 (Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics); Vol. 11366 LNCS).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Hamasaki, H, Takeshita, S, Nakai, K, Sonoda, T, Kawasaki, H, Nagahara, H & Ono, S 2019, A Coded Aperture for Watermark Extraction from Defocused Images. in G Mori, H Li, CV Jawahar & K Schindler (eds), Computer Vision – ACCV 2018 - 14th Asian Conference on Computer Vision, Revised Selected Papers. Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), vol. 11366 LNCS, Springer Verlag, pp. 231-246, 14th Asian Conference on Computer Vision, ACCV 2018, Perth, Australia, 12/2/18. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-20876-9_15
Hamasaki H, Takeshita S, Nakai K, Sonoda T, Kawasaki H, Nagahara H et al. A Coded Aperture for Watermark Extraction from Defocused Images. In Mori G, Li H, Jawahar CV, Schindler K, editors, Computer Vision – ACCV 2018 - 14th Asian Conference on Computer Vision, Revised Selected Papers. Springer Verlag. 2019. p. 231-246. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-20876-9_15
Hamasaki, Hiroki ; Takeshita, Shingo ; Nakai, Kentaro ; Sonoda, Toshiki ; Kawasaki, Hiroshi ; Nagahara, Hajime ; Ono, Satoshi. / A Coded Aperture for Watermark Extraction from Defocused Images. Computer Vision – ACCV 2018 - 14th Asian Conference on Computer Vision, Revised Selected Papers. editor / Greg Mori ; Hongdong Li ; C.V. Jawahar ; Konrad Schindler. Springer Verlag, 2019. pp. 231-246 (Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)).
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