A game model is developed of the daily schedule of matesearching activity by male butterflies, assuming that each male maximizes his expected mating success given a limited total time for mate search. The model predicts that (1) in the early morning, no male is active even though many females are emerging; (2) at a critical time, many males suddenly become active; and (3) the male's maximum activity occurs after the peak female emergence and before the peak capture efficiency. The inverse problem is also analyzed, in which the temporal pattern of capture efficiency is estimated from the knowledge of male activity and female emergence, assuming the evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) condition. The model is then applied to data from a cabbage white butterfly (Pieris rapae crucivora) population and predicts that (1) females remain unmated for several hours on average after emergence, and (2) the male 's capture efficiency is rather low and increases significantly with time during the morning.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
- Insect Science