A new scrambling evaluation scheme based on spatial distribution entropy and centroid difference of bit-plane

Liang Zhao, Avishek Adhikari, Kouichi Sakurai

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Watermarking is one of the most effective techniques for copyright protection and information hiding. It can be applied in many fields of our society. Nowadays, some image scrambling schemes are used as one part of the watermarking algorithm to enhance the security. Therefore, how to select an image scrambling scheme and what kind of the image scrambling scheme may be used for watermarking are the key problems. Evaluation method of the image scrambling schemes can be seen as a useful test tool for showing the property or flaw of the image scrambling method. In this paper, a new scrambling evaluation system based on spatial distribution entropy and centroid difference of bit-plane is presented to obtain the scrambling degree of image scrambling schemes. Our scheme is illustrated and justified through computer simulations. The experimental results show (in Figs. 6 and 7) that for the general gray-scale image, the evaluation degree of the corresponding cipher image for the first 4 significant bit-planes selection is nearly the same as that for the 8 bit-planes selection. That is why, instead of taking 8 bit-planes of a gray-scale image, it is sufficient to take only the first 4 significant bit-planes for the experiment to find the scrambling degree. This 50% reduction in the computational cost makes our scheme efficient.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationDigital Watermarking - 9th International Workshop, IWDW 2010, Revised Selected Papers
Pages29-44
Number of pages16
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 1 2011
Event9th International Workshop on Digital Watermarking, IWDW 2010 - Seoul, Korea, Republic of
Duration: Oct 1 2010Oct 3 2010

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)
Volume6526 LNCS
ISSN (Print)0302-9743
ISSN (Electronic)1611-3349

Other

Other9th International Workshop on Digital Watermarking, IWDW 2010
CountryKorea, Republic of
CitySeoul
Period10/1/1010/3/10

Fingerprint

Centroid
Spatial Distribution
Spatial distribution
Entropy
Watermarking
Evaluation
Copyright Protection
Information Hiding
Defects
Evaluation Method
Computer simulation
Computational Cost
Computer Simulation
Costs
Sufficient
Experiments
Experimental Results

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Theoretical Computer Science
  • Computer Science(all)

Cite this

Zhao, L., Adhikari, A., & Sakurai, K. (2011). A new scrambling evaluation scheme based on spatial distribution entropy and centroid difference of bit-plane. In Digital Watermarking - 9th International Workshop, IWDW 2010, Revised Selected Papers (pp. 29-44). (Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics); Vol. 6526 LNCS). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-18405-5-4

A new scrambling evaluation scheme based on spatial distribution entropy and centroid difference of bit-plane. / Zhao, Liang; Adhikari, Avishek; Sakurai, Kouichi.

Digital Watermarking - 9th International Workshop, IWDW 2010, Revised Selected Papers. 2011. p. 29-44 (Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics); Vol. 6526 LNCS).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Zhao, L, Adhikari, A & Sakurai, K 2011, A new scrambling evaluation scheme based on spatial distribution entropy and centroid difference of bit-plane. in Digital Watermarking - 9th International Workshop, IWDW 2010, Revised Selected Papers. Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), vol. 6526 LNCS, pp. 29-44, 9th International Workshop on Digital Watermarking, IWDW 2010, Seoul, Korea, Republic of, 10/1/10. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-18405-5-4
Zhao L, Adhikari A, Sakurai K. A new scrambling evaluation scheme based on spatial distribution entropy and centroid difference of bit-plane. In Digital Watermarking - 9th International Workshop, IWDW 2010, Revised Selected Papers. 2011. p. 29-44. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-18405-5-4
Zhao, Liang ; Adhikari, Avishek ; Sakurai, Kouichi. / A new scrambling evaluation scheme based on spatial distribution entropy and centroid difference of bit-plane. Digital Watermarking - 9th International Workshop, IWDW 2010, Revised Selected Papers. 2011. pp. 29-44 (Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)).
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