Huge numbers of chemicals are released uncontrolled into the environment and some of these chemicals induce unwanted biological effects, both on wildlife and humans. One class of these chemicals are endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), which are released even though EDCs can affect not only the functions of steroid hormones but also of various signaling molecules, including any ligand-mediated signal transduction pathways. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), a pesticide that is already banned, is one of the best-publicized EDCs and its metabolites have been considered to cause adverse effects on wildlife, even though the exact molecular mechanisms of the abnormalities it causes still remain obscure. Recently, an industrial raw material, bisphenol A (BPA), has attracted worldwide attention as an EDC because it induces developmental abnormalities even at low-dose exposures. DDT and BPA derivatives have structural similarities in their chemical features. In this short review, unclear points on the molecular mechanisms of adverse effects of DDT found on alligators are summarized from data in the literature, and recent experimental and molecular research on BPA derivatives is investigated to introduce novel perspectives on BPA derivatives. Especially, a recently developed BPA derivative, bisphenol C (BPC), is structurally similar to a DDT derivative called dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE).
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology
- Computer Science Applications
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Organic Chemistry
- Inorganic Chemistry