Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are known as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) activators, and are used in the treatment of diabetes. Although the usefulness of TZDs has been demonstrated, some of their side effects are becoming an obstacle to their clinical applicability; edema is known to be evoked by the “structural characteristics” of TZD, but not by the PPAR? activation. Thus, novel therapeutic modalities (i.e., non-TZD-type PPAR? activators) having different structures to those of TZDs are desired. We previously identified bongkrekic acid (BKA) as a PPAR? activator using the human breast cancer MCF-7 cell line as a model system. In the present study, we newly synthesized BKA analogs and examined the usefulness of BKA and its analogs as PPAR? activators in differentiated adipocyte cells. Among the chemicals investigated, one of the BKA analogs (BKA-#2) strongly stimulated PPAR? and the differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells similar to pioglitazone, a positive control. Furthermore, BKA-#2 reduced the size of lipid droplets in the mature adipocyte cells. The possible modulation mechanism by BKA-#2 is discussed.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Pharmaceutical Science