Hidradenoma usually presents as a solitary, slow-growing, and solid or cystic nodular lesion, which arises in various anatomical sites. Its diagnosis is occasionally difficult because the tumor shares histological features with other cutaneous appendage tumors. Recently, CRTC1-MAML2 fusion gene was reported in hidradenomas, with the fusion transcript being demonstrated in approximately 50% of cases. However, limited information is available regarding its clinical significance. Here, we investigated the relationship between the fusion gene and clinicohistopathological features. We reviewed 39 cases histologically diagnosed as hidradenoma. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed for all 39 cases, and fluorescence in situ hybridization was also performed for the RT-PCR–negative cases. The 39 tumors included 36 clear cell hidradenomas and 3 poroid hidradenomas. The details of the cellular components were as follows: clear cell–dominant type, 9 cases; polygonal cell–dominant type, 21 cases; and equally mixed type, 9 cases. There were no tumors with apparent mucinous cells. There were 8 tumors with prominent cystic change, 2 of which presented apocrine-like decapitated secretion. CRTC1-MAML2 fusion was detected in 10 of the 39 tumors (26%) and CRTC3-MAML2 fusion in 2 of the 39 (5%) by RT-PCR. MAML2 gene rearrangement was detected in 11 of 27 fusion gene–negative cases by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Moreover, neither the fusion genes nor gene rearrangement was detected in prominent cystic tumors and poroid hidradenomas. We conclude that CRTC1/3-MAML2 fusion gene analysis can be a useful method for diagnosing hidradenoma. Considering the histological and genetic similarity to mucoepidermoid carcinoma, hidradenoma may be a cutaneous counterpart of salivary gland mucoepidermoid carcinoma.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine