Background: Several studies have suggested that chemotherapy prolonged survival in patients with metastatic or recurrent small bowel adenocarcinoma (SBA); however, there is still no standard chemotherapy regimen. Here, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of a 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)/L-leucovorin (l-LV)/oxaliplatin (mFOLFOX6) protocol as a first-line therapy for patients with SBA. Patients and methods: This was a multicenter, single-arm, open-label phase II study. Eligibility criteria included histologically confirmed adenocarcinoma, age 20–80 years, and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (PS) of 0–2. The primary endpoint was 1-year progression-free survival (PFS). The secondary endpoints included overall response rate (ORR), overall survival (OS), overall PFS, and safety. Results: Between April 2010 and November 2012, 24 patients were enrolled from 12 institutions. The median age of the patients was 63 years (range 31–79) and there was a male/female ratio of 18/6. The number of PS 0/1 patients was 17/7 and locally advanced/metastatic disease was seen in 2/22 patients, respectively. The primary tumor site was the duodenum in 14 patients (58%) and jejunum in 10 patients (42%). The median follow-up time was 14.7 months (3.7–40.3). The 1-year PFS was 23.3%. The ORR was 9/20 (45%). The median PFS and OS times were 5.9 months (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.0–10.2) and 17.3 months (95% CI 11.7–19.0), respectively. Major grade 3/4 toxicities were neutropenia (38%), anemia/peripheral neuropathy (25%), and stenosis (17%). There were no treatment-related deaths. Conclusions: Although the primary endpoint was not met, mFOLFOX6 showed effective and good tolerance as a first-line treatment for SBA.
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