Context: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) patients frequently develop Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES). These patients can develop proliferative changes of gastric enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cells and gastric carcinoids (ECL-cell tumors). ECL-cell changes have been extensively studied in sporadic ZES patients and can be precursor lesions of gastric carcinoids, but little is known about factors influencing their severity or development of carcinoids in MEN1/ZES patients. Objectives: Our objective was to prospectively analyze ECL-cell changes and gastric carcinoids (ECL-cell tumors) in a large series of MEN1/ZES patients to detect risk factors and deduct clinical guidelines. Setting and Patients: Fifty-seven consecutive MEN1/ZES patients participated in this prospective study at two tertiary-care research centers. Interventions and Outcome Measures: Assessment of MEN1, gastric hypersecretion, and gastroscopy with multiple biopsies was done according to a fixed protocol and tumor status. ECL-cell changes and α-human chorionic gonadotropin staining were assessed in each biopsy and correlated with clinical, laboratory, and MEN1 features. Results: ECL-cell proliferative changes were universally present, advanced changes in 53% and carcinoids in 23%. Gastric nodules arecommonand are frequently associated with carcinoids. Patients with high fasting serum gastrin levels, long disease duration, or a strong α-human chorionic gonadotropin staining in a biopsy are at higher risk for an advanced ECL-cell lesion and/or gastric carcinoid. Conclusions: Gastric carcinoids and/or advanced ECL-cell changes are frequent in MEN1/ZES patients, and therefore, regular surveillance gastroscopy with multiple routine biopsies and biopsies of all mucosal lesions are essential. Clinical/laboratory dataandbiopsy results canbeused to identify a subgroup of MEN1/ZES patients with a significantly increased risk for developing gastric carcinoids, allowing development of better surveillance strategies.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Clinical Biochemistry
- Biochemistry, medical