Introduction: A myelolipoma is a rare benign tumor that is composed of adipose tissue and hematopoietic elements. Myelolipomas most commonly occur in the unilateral adrenal gland. Posterior mediastinal myelolipomas are extremely rare. We herein present a rare case of a multifocal myelolipoma of the mediastinum that gradually enlarged over a 12-year period after surgical resection of an adrenal myelolipoma. This is the first report of multifocal myelolipomas of the posterior mediastinum and adrenal gland. Presentation of case: A posterior mediastinal tumor was incidentally found by chest X-ray and computed tomography (CT) examination of a 74-year-old woman. The patient had a medical history of resection of a myelolipoma of the left adrenal gland 12 years earlier. We performed tumor extirpation under video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS). The size of the tumor was 4.5 cm, and the postoperative diagnosis was a myelolipoma. Discussion: Posterior mediastinal myelolipomas are extremely rare, and only 39 cases of mediastinal myelolipoma have been reported to date. No reports have described a multifocal myelipoma of mediastinal myelolipoma. To our knowledge, this is the first report of multifocal myelipomas of the adrenal gland and posterior mediastinum. Conclusion: A differential diagnosis of myelolipoma of the posterior mediastinum is important in patients with a history of myelolipoma of the adrenal gland.
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