An existence condition of a stationary electron hole associated with a Langmuir wave is examined on the basis of a phenomenological description of trapped electrons. The hole formation is possible only when the hole velocity is larger than 31/2 times electron thermal velocity, which is consistent with experiments. A hole solution is obtained analytically for small amplitude cases and numerically for large amplitude cases.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
- Mathematical Physics
- Condensed Matter Physics