With the rapidly developing economy in China, the gap between the rich and the poor is becoming wider and wider. At the same time, the gap of education and school facilities between urban area and rural area is also widening. The reform of education has been carried out for about 30 years, but the development of the education facilities and space in urban area has stagnated for a long time. On the other hand, in rural area, with the outside help of architects and NGO, many creative school facilities have been built, which are rare in urban area and called by Hope Primary School (those are built in poverty-stricken rural areas of China and funded by charities in order to help children whose families are too poor to afford the tuition to complete elementary school education, hereinafter referred to as HPS). Many of these HPSs were built after the Sichuan and Qinghai earthquake.<br> The paper intends to clarify the composition and the character of HPSs' architecture spaces and the process of the planning and constructions of HPSs in order to break the standard school planning for future school building.<br> The methods of this paper include: 1) picked up 31 HPSs from architecture magazines and literatures, analyzed the geographical position, design concept, architecture space of them, and the planning methods of HPSs which are based on cooperation between schools and local society. 2) interviewed 13 architectural designers who designed HPSs, clarified the sequence of the project starting, the background and the process of the planning and constructions of HPSs. 3) implemented a field survey on the current situation and actual status of use of 14 HPSs.<br> The conclusions are as follows:<br> (1) In the starting of the process, the way that designers enter into the projects and their role are very important. At the beginning of HPSs' project, most of designers were chosen by NGOs / donators according open competitions except those who start the projects themselves. After that, the chosen designers will find problems on local education and society, decide location and scale of schools, and submit design proposal. The above features promote the functioning of the schools and reflect the involved local traditional cultures.<br> (2) The valuable creation of various spaces is resulted from the designers' initiative of planning process. Although the low cost set a limit to the design, the designers succeeded in creating school architectures by introducing local traditional culture and features into the school planning through using local architecture materials and construction methods and employing local residents and contractors.<br> (3) Taking not only the public budgets but also various construction funds promote forming a more democratic process of school planning.<br> (4) The participation of local residents and contractors in the process of the planning and constructions promotes creating the school planning which will satisfy various needs of local society, connect with local traditional culture, and support cooperation programs and exchange activities between HPSs and communities.<br> (5) There are various clients and various methods to start the project of HPSs. However, the design process and the way of getting the construction funds have not been systematized yet. The cost connecting to schools' quality is overall low, and the gap is still big.
|Translated title of the contribution||A STUDY ON THE PROCESS OF THE PLANNING AND CONSTRUCTION OF HOPE PRIMARY SCHOOL IN RURAL AREA OF CHINA|
|Number of pages||11|
|Publication status||Published - 2017|