Male parental care and female multiple mating are seen in many species in spite of the cost they entail. Moreover, they even coexist in some species though polyandry, by reducing paternity confidence of caregiving males, seems to hinder the evolution of paternal care. Previous studies have investigated the coevolutionary process of paternal care and polyandry under various simplifying assumptions, including random mating and random provision of male care. We extend these models to examine possible effects of female mate choice and male care bias, assuming that (a) monandrous females mate preferentially with caregiving males while polyandrous females compromise their preference in order to mate with multiple males and (b) caregiving males tend to direct their care to offspring of monandrous females. Our models suggest that both the female preference and the male bias always favor caregiving males while they may not always facilitate the evolution of monandry.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Statistics and Probability
- Modelling and Simulation
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Immunology and Microbiology(all)
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
- Applied Mathematics