For the consistent development of the field of photon upconversion via triplet-triplet annihilation (TTA-UC), it is pivotal to know the true quantum yield of TTA-UC emission. Although TTA-UC quantum yields have been determined by common relative measurements using quantum yield standards, there is still a discrepancy between the reported values even for the benchmark sensitizer-emitter pair of platinum(II) octaethylporphyrin (PtOEP) and 9,10-diphenylanthracene (DPA). Here, to resolve this situation, we show a method to obtain the absolute quantum yield of TTA-UC photoluminescence. The difficulty in obtaining absolute TTA-UC quantum yield by the integrating sphere measurement is to accurately calibrate the contribution of reabsorbed upconverted emission by triplet sensitizers. The reabsorption correction is successfully carried out by comparing sensitizer phosphorescence with and without the integrating sphere. An absolute TTA-UC quantum yield of the PtOEP-DPA pair is obtained as 36%, which shows a good agreement with the relative TTA-UC quantum yield. An absolute TTA-UC quantum yield of another red-to-blue TTA-UC pair, platinum(II) meso-tetraphenyltetrabenzoporphyrin (PtTPBP) and 2,5,8,11-tetra-tert-butylperylene (TTBP), is obtained as 27%. These absolute TTA-UC quantum yields can be used as certified values to check the measurement setup and sample condition for determining relative TTA-UC quantum yields in each laboratory.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry