Objective: To develop surgical stents for cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) 3-dimensional (3D) image-based stent-guided orthodontic miniscrew implantation and to evaluate its accuracy. Materials and Methods: Ten surgical stents were fabricated with stereolithographic appliances (SLAs) according to 3D CBCT image-based virtual implantation plans. Thirty self-drilling miniscrews were implanted at two to three positions on each side of the maxillary or mandibular posterior arches in three phantoms: 20 guided by 10 surgical stents in two phantoms (stent group) and 10 guided freehand in one phantom (freehand group). Six parameters (mesiodistal and vertical deviations at the corona and apex and mesiodistal and vertical angular deviations) were measured to compare variations between the groups. Results: No root damage was found in the stent group, whereas four of 10 miniscrews contacted with roots in the freehand group. In the stent group, deviations in the mesiodistal and vertical directions were 0.15 ± 0.09 and 0.19 ± 0.19 mm at the corona, respectively, and 0.28 ± 0.23 and 0.33 ± 0.25 mm at the apex, respectively; angular deviations in the mesiodistal and vertical directions were 1.47° ± 0.92° and 2.13° ± 1.48°, respectively. In the freehand group, the corresponding results were 0.48 ± 0.46 mm and 0.94 ± 0.87 mm (corona), 0.81 ± 0.61 mm and 0.78 6 0.49 mm (apex), and 7.49° ± 6.09° and 6.31° ± 3.82°. Significant differences were found in all six parameters between the two groups (Student's t-test, P <.05). Conclusions: 3D CBCT image-based SLA-fabricated surgical stents can provide a safe and accurate method for miniscrew implantation.
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