Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase protects against homocysteine-induced apoptosis of osteocytic MLO-Y4 cells by regulating the expressions of NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1) and Nox2

Ayumu Takeno, Ippei Kanazawa, Ken ichiro Tanaka, Masakazu Notsu, Maki Yokomoto, Toru Yamaguchi, Toshitsugu Sugimoto

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Elevated plasma homocysteine (Hcy) level is associated with the risk of osteoporotic fracture. While Hcy increases oxidative stress, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation ameliorates it. This study aimed to investigate whether Hcy induces apoptosis of osteocytic MLO-Y4 cells through regulating expressions of oxidant and anti-oxidant enzymes and determine the effects of AMPK activation by 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β- d-ribofuranoside (AICAR) and metformin on the Hcy-induced apoptosis of the cells. Results: DNA fragment ELISA and TUNEL staining assays showed that Hcy treatments (0.1-5.0. mM) induced apoptosis of MLO-Y4 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The detrimental effect of Hcy was partly but significantly reversed by an antioxidant (N-acetylcysteine) and NADPH oxidase (Nox) inhibitors (apocynin and diphenyleneiodonium). In addition, treatment with AICAR (0.05-0.1. mM) and metformin (10-100. μM) ameliorated Hcy-induced apoptosis of the cells. The favorable effect of metformin on Hcy-induced apoptosis was completely canceled by an AMPK inhibitor Ara-A. Hcy increased the expression levels of Nox1 and Nox2, while it had no effects on the expressions of Nox4 or the anti-oxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase 1 and 2. Hcy-induced increases in the expressions of Nox1 and Nox2 decreased significantly by treatments with AICAR. Conclusion: These findings suggest that Hcy induces apoptosis of osteocytes by increasing the expressions of Nox1 and Nox2, and AMPK activation by AICAR and metformin effectively prevents the detrimental reactions. Thus, AMPK activation may be a potent therapeutic candidate for preventing Hcy-induced osteocyte apoptosis and the resulting bone fragility.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)135-141
Number of pages7
JournalBone
Volume77
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 1 2015
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Physiology
  • Histology

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