Purpose: An elemental diet (ED) can suppress inflammation in patients with Crohn’s disease (CD); however, adherence to this diet is difficult. We examined the correlation between ED adherence and the postoperative recurrence of CD. Methods: The subjects of this study were 38 patients who underwent intestinal resection with anastomosis. We defined ED adherence as consuming the average daily ED dose (≥900 kcal/day) for 2 years after surgery. Patients who did not adhere to the ED were allocated to the non-ED group. We diagnosed symptomatic recurrence using the CD activity index and endoscopic recurrence using the Rutgeerts’ score. Results: The ED and non-ED groups comprised 21 and 17 patients, respectively, with ED adherence of 55.3% (21/38). At the initial endoscopy, symptomatic and endoscopic recurrence rates were 4.8 and 14.3%, respectively, in the ED group, and 23.5 and 41.2%, respectively, in the non-ED group (P = 0.152 and P = 0.078, respectively). The overall symptomatic recurrence-free duration was significantly longer than the endoscopic recurrence-free duration (P = 0.022). Symptomatic and endoscopic recurrence-free durations were longer in the ED group than in the non-ED group (P = 0.003 and P = 0.021, respectively), and ED adherence was a prognostic factor for endoscopic recurrence (HR = 2.777, 95% CI = 1.036–8.767, P = 0.042). Conclusion: Maintaining ED adherence for 2 years after surgery improved the symptomatic and endoscopic recurrence-free durations.
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