Although several studies have reported significant effects of patient age on outcomes of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), the prognostic relevance of age must be determined separately for myeloablative conditioning (MAC) and reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC). We analyzed Japanese nationwide transplantation registry data of patients aged 20–79 years with acute myeloid leukemia who underwent allogeneic HCT using MAC (n = 7525) or RIC (n = 3154) between 2008 and 2019. Patient were divided into six groups by age, with each group representing a decade, and overall survival (OS), relapse, and non-relapse mortality (NRM) were compared between adjacent age groups. The adverse impact of age on OS increased each decade starting at age 40 among patients receiving MAC, but only differed significantly between patients in their 50s and 60s among those receiving RIC. In patients receiving both MAC and RIC, the detrimental effect of advanced age on OS was accompanied by an increased risk of NRM. These findings show that age affects NRM and OS significantly, but differs depending on conditioning intensity. RIC mitigates the adverse prognostic impact of older age and is thus considered a reasonable option for older patients.
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