This paper describes experimental research and a fundamental study of alkaline hydrothermal treatment of high-sulfur, high-ash coal from Banten, Java-Indonesia. Experiments were carried out on a laboratoryscale 0.5 L batch reactor. The alkaline hydrothermal treatment gave upgraded clean coal with low sulfur content (about 0.3 wt.%) and low ash content (about 2.1 wt.%). A zero carbon dioxide and pure hydrogen gas were produced at 330 °C by introducing an alkali (sodium hydroxide, NaOH) to the hydrothermal treatment of raw coal. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) techniques were used to test for the removal or reduction of major inorganic elements in the coal, and changes in carbon-functional groups and their properties were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Carbon-13 of nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR) tests on the product of the hydrothermal upgrading and demineralization process.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- Nuclear Energy and Engineering
- Fuel Technology
- Energy Engineering and Power Technology