Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated T/NK-cell lymphoproliterative disease (LPD) has been linked to several different disorders. Its prognosis is generally poor and a treatment strategy has yet to be established. There are reports, however, that hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) can cure this disease. To clarify the current situation regarding allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) for EBV-associated T/NK-LPD, a nationwide survey was performed in Japan. Data for 74 patients were collected. There were 42 cases of chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV), 10 cases of EBV-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (EBV-HLH), and 22 cases of EBV-associated lymphoma/leukemia (EBV-lymphoma/leukemia). Of those with CAEBV, 54% had the EBV-infected T-cell type and 59% with EBV-lymphoma/leukemia had the EBV-infected NK-cell type. Most patients with EBV-HLH and EBV-lymphoma/leukemia received alloHSCT within 1 year after onset compared to only 14% of patients with CAEBV. The event-free survival (EFS) rate following allo-HSCT was 0.561 ± 0.086 for CAEBV, 0.614 ± 0.186 for EBV-HLH, and 0.309 ± 0.107 for EBV-lymphoma/leukemia. The EFS of allo-HSCT with conventional conditioning was 0.488 ± 0.074 and with reduced-intensity conditioning was 0.563 ± 0.124. Thus, in a substantial number of cases, EBV-associated T/NK-LPD can be cured by either allogeneic conventional stem cell transplantation or reduced-intensity stem cell transplantation.
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