Activity of daily living (ADL) and cognitive are indices of physical and psychological activity in elderly subjects. The present study was performed to clarify the relationship among ADL, cognitive function, and ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) in the elderly. Study subjects were 77 females and 22 males (aged 60 to 101 years) with various levels of ADL and cognition, who were in nursing homes or geriatric hospitals. ABP was recorded every 30 min for 24 h by a noninvasive device. Mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and Barthel index measurement were used to evaluate cognitive function and ADL, respectively. Both the MMSE and Barthel index values showed a significant positive correlation with daytime ABP but not with nighttime ABP. The dip in nighttime BP correlated negatively with age, and positively with MMSE and Barthel index. In the multiple regression analysis, age and Barthel index values remained significant determinants of the dip in nighttime BP. Presence of stroke and MMSE became significant when the Barthel index values were removed from the analyses. When subjects were classified by tertiles of MMSE or Barthel index, subjects in the lowest MMSE group and those in the lowest Barthel index group had both lower daytime ABP and smaller nighttime BP dip than those of the other groups. A low BP level during the daytime was associated with altered diurnal variation of BP in elderly subjects with greater age, impaired cognitive function, and/or decreased ADL. ADL had a greater influence on diurnal BP variation than did cognitive function.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Internal Medicine
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine