Ammonia emission from rice leaves in relation to photorespiration and genotypic differences in glutamine synthetase activity

Etsushi Kumagai, Takuya Araki, Norimitsu Hamaoka, Ueno Osamu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

27 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background and Aims: Rice (Oryza sativa) plants lose significant amounts of volatile NH3 from their leaves, but it has not been shown that this is a consequence of photorespiration. Involvement of photorespiration in NH 3 emission and the role of glutamine synthetase (GS) on NH 3 recycling were investigated using two rice cultivars with different GS activities. • Methods: NH 3 emission (AER), and gross photosynthesis (P G ), transpiration (T r ) and stomatal conductance (g S ) were measured on leaves of 'Akenohoshi', a cultivar with high GS activity, and 'Kasalath', a cultivar with low GS activity, under different light intensities (200, 500 and 1000 μmol m -2 s -1 ), leaf temperatures (27·5, 32·5 and 37·5 °C) and atmospheric O 2 concentrations ([O 2 ]: 2, 21 and 40%, corresponding to 20, 210 and 400 mmol mol -1 ). • Key Results: An increase in [O 2 ] increased AER in the two cultivars, accompanied by a decrease in P G due to enhanced photorespiration, but did not greatly influence Tr and g S . There were significant positive correlations between AER and photorespiration in both cultivars. Increasing light intensity increased AER, P G , Tr and g S in both cultivars, whereas increasing leaf temperature increased AER and Tr but slightly decreased P G and g S . 'Kasalath' (low GS activity) showed higher AER than 'Akenohoshi' (high GS activity) at high light intensity, leaf temperature and [O 2 ]. • Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that photorespiration is strongly involved in NH 3 emission by rice leaves and suggest that differences in AER between cultivars result from their different GS activities, which would result in different capacities for reassimilation of photorespiratory NH 3 . The results also suggest that NH 3 emission in rice leaves is not directly controlled by transpiration and stomatal conductance.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1381-1386
Number of pages6
JournalAnnals of Botany
Volume108
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 1 2011

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photorespiration
glutamate-ammonia ligase
ammonia
rice
cultivars
leaves
light intensity
stomatal conductance
transpiration
temperature
recycling
Oryza sativa
photosynthesis

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Plant Science

Cite this

Ammonia emission from rice leaves in relation to photorespiration and genotypic differences in glutamine synthetase activity. / Kumagai, Etsushi; Araki, Takuya; Hamaoka, Norimitsu; Osamu, Ueno.

In: Annals of Botany, Vol. 108, No. 7, 01.11.2011, p. 1381-1386.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Background and Aims: Rice (Oryza sativa) plants lose significant amounts of volatile NH3 from their leaves, but it has not been shown that this is a consequence of photorespiration. Involvement of photorespiration in NH 3 emission and the role of glutamine synthetase (GS) on NH 3 recycling were investigated using two rice cultivars with different GS activities. • Methods: NH 3 emission (AER), and gross photosynthesis (P G ), transpiration (T r ) and stomatal conductance (g S ) were measured on leaves of 'Akenohoshi', a cultivar with high GS activity, and 'Kasalath', a cultivar with low GS activity, under different light intensities (200, 500 and 1000 μmol m -2 s -1 ), leaf temperatures (27·5, 32·5 and 37·5 °C) and atmospheric O 2 concentrations ([O 2 ]: 2, 21 and 40{\%}, corresponding to 20, 210 and 400 mmol mol -1 ). • Key Results: An increase in [O 2 ] increased AER in the two cultivars, accompanied by a decrease in P G due to enhanced photorespiration, but did not greatly influence Tr and g S . There were significant positive correlations between AER and photorespiration in both cultivars. Increasing light intensity increased AER, P G , Tr and g S in both cultivars, whereas increasing leaf temperature increased AER and Tr but slightly decreased P G and g S . 'Kasalath' (low GS activity) showed higher AER than 'Akenohoshi' (high GS activity) at high light intensity, leaf temperature and [O 2 ]. • Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that photorespiration is strongly involved in NH 3 emission by rice leaves and suggest that differences in AER between cultivars result from their different GS activities, which would result in different capacities for reassimilation of photorespiratory NH 3 . The results also suggest that NH 3 emission in rice leaves is not directly controlled by transpiration and stomatal conductance.",
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AU - Kumagai, Etsushi

AU - Araki, Takuya

AU - Hamaoka, Norimitsu

AU - Osamu, Ueno

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AB - Background and Aims: Rice (Oryza sativa) plants lose significant amounts of volatile NH3 from their leaves, but it has not been shown that this is a consequence of photorespiration. Involvement of photorespiration in NH 3 emission and the role of glutamine synthetase (GS) on NH 3 recycling were investigated using two rice cultivars with different GS activities. • Methods: NH 3 emission (AER), and gross photosynthesis (P G ), transpiration (T r ) and stomatal conductance (g S ) were measured on leaves of 'Akenohoshi', a cultivar with high GS activity, and 'Kasalath', a cultivar with low GS activity, under different light intensities (200, 500 and 1000 μmol m -2 s -1 ), leaf temperatures (27·5, 32·5 and 37·5 °C) and atmospheric O 2 concentrations ([O 2 ]: 2, 21 and 40%, corresponding to 20, 210 and 400 mmol mol -1 ). • Key Results: An increase in [O 2 ] increased AER in the two cultivars, accompanied by a decrease in P G due to enhanced photorespiration, but did not greatly influence Tr and g S . There were significant positive correlations between AER and photorespiration in both cultivars. Increasing light intensity increased AER, P G , Tr and g S in both cultivars, whereas increasing leaf temperature increased AER and Tr but slightly decreased P G and g S . 'Kasalath' (low GS activity) showed higher AER than 'Akenohoshi' (high GS activity) at high light intensity, leaf temperature and [O 2 ]. • Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that photorespiration is strongly involved in NH 3 emission by rice leaves and suggest that differences in AER between cultivars result from their different GS activities, which would result in different capacities for reassimilation of photorespiratory NH 3 . The results also suggest that NH 3 emission in rice leaves is not directly controlled by transpiration and stomatal conductance.

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