Background: The association between alcohol consumption and chronic kidney disease (CKD), characterized by reduced glomerular filtration rate and proteinuria, is controversial. Recent studies suggest that serum γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) level, a conventional marker of excessive alcohol consumption, predicts the CKD incidence. Little information is available on the difference in the clinical impact of alcohol consumption and GGT on proteinuria.
Methods: The present cross-sectional survey included 332,296 Japanese people aged ≥40 years in 2008. To examine the associations of GGT and alcohol consumption with proteinuria, 134,600 men and 197,696 women were classified into 20 categories based on GGT quartiles and alcohol consumption categories, and their prevalence rate ratios (PRR) of proteinuria defined as ≥1+ of dipstick urinary protein were calculated after adjusting for clinically relevant factors.
Results: Prevalence of proteinuria was 7.5 and 3.7 % in men and women, respectively. In both gender an association between alcohol consumption and proteinuria was in a J-shaped fashion with the lowest PRR of mild drinkers with ≤19 g/day of ethanol consumption, whereas an association between serum GGT level and proteinuria was linear. Compared with rare drinkers in the lowest GGT quartile, the subjects in higher GGT quartiles had a higher probability of proteinuria, irrespective of alcohol consumption. An optimal cutoff level of serum GGT was 43.6 and 23.2 IU/L in men and women, respectively.
Conclusions: The subjects with higher serum GGT level had a higher probability of proteinuria, regardless of alcohol consumption, suggesting that GGT has a clinically greater impact on CKD than alcohol consumption.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Physiology (medical)