An empirical model of the quiet daily geomagnetic field variation

Y. Yamazaki, K. Yumoto, M. G. Cardinal, B. J. Fraser, P. Hattori, Y. Kakinami, J. Y. Liu, K. J.W. Lynn, R. Marshall, D. McNamara, T. Nagatsuma, V. M. Nikiforov, R. E. Otadoy, M. Ruhimat, B. M. Shevtsov, K. Shiokawa, S. Abe, T. Uozumi, A. Yoshikawa

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Abstract

An empirical model of the quiet daily geomagnetic field variation has been constructed based on geomagnetic data obtained from 21 stations along the 210 Magnetic Meridian of the Circum-pan Pacific Magnetometer Network (CPMN) from 1996 to 2007. Using the least squares fitting method for geomagnetically quiet days (Kp ≤ 2+), the quiet daily geomagnetic field variation at each station was described as a function of solar activity SA, day of year DOY, lunar age LA, and local time LT. After interpolation in latitude, the model can describe solar-activity dependence and seasonal dependence of solar quiet daily variations (S) and lunar quiet daily variations (L). We performed a spherical harmonic analysis (SHA) on these S and L variations to examine average characteristics of the equivalent external current systems. We found three particularly noteworthy results. First, the total current intensity of the S current system is largely controlled by solar activity while its focus position is not significantly affected by solar activity. Second, we found that seasonal variations of the S current intensity exhibit north-south asymmetry; the current intensity of the northern vortex shows a prominent annual variation while the southern vortex shows a clear semi-annual variation as well as annual variation. Thirdly, we found that the total intensity of the L current system changes depending on solar activity and season; seasonal variations of the L current intensity show an enhancement during the December solstice, independent of the level of solar activity.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberA10312
JournalJournal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics
Volume116
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2011

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Space and Planetary Science
  • Geophysics

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