BACKGROUND: We previously reported the utility of engineered cell sheets composed of human islets and supporting cells in vitro and in vivo. It is unclear which type of supporting cell is most suitable for constructing cell sheets with human islets. The present study aimed to compare human fibroblasts, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs), and adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) as a supporting source for cell sheets. METHODS: Engineered cell sheets were fabricated with human islets using human fibroblasts, BM-MSCs, or ADSCs as supporting cells. The islet viability, recovery rate, glucose-stimulated insulin release (determined by the stimulation index), and cytokine secretion (TGF-β1, IL-6, and VEGF) of groups-including an islet-alone group as a control-were compared. RESULTS: All three sheet groups consistently exhibited higher viability, recovery rate, and stimulation index values than the islet-alone group. The ADSC group showed the highest viability and recovery rate among the three sheet groups. There were no discernible differences in the stimulation index values of the groups. The fibroblast group exhibited significantly higher TGF-β1 values in comparison to the other groups. The IL-6 level of the ADSC group was more than five times higher than that of the other groups. The ADSC group showed the VEGF level; however, it did not differ from that of the BM-MSC group to a statistically significant extent. CONCLUSION: Engineered cell sheets composed of islets and supporting cells had a cytoprotective effect on islets. These results suggest that individual cell types could be a more attractive source for crafting engineered cell sheets in comparison to islets alone.