Heteroatom containing molecules in South Banko coal liquid (SBCL) distillate were identified with a gas Chromatograph equipped with an atomic emission detector (GC-AED). Thiophenes and benzothiophenes were found to be the major sulfur compounds. Pyridines, anilines, and phenols were the major nitrogen and oxygen compounds, respectively. Reactivities of heteroatom containing species in hydrotreatment over conventional NiMoS/Al2O3, NiMoS/Al2O3-SiO2 catalysts were very different according to their cyclic structure as well as the kind of heteroatom in the species. The sulfur species were completely desulfurized over the catalysts examined in the present study by 60 min at 360°C under initial hydrogen pressure of 5 MPa. However, hydrodenitrogenation was more difficult than hydrodesulfurization even at 450°C. Anilines were found the most refractory ones among the nitrogen species. Hydrodeoxygenation of SBCL was also difficult in the hydrotreatment conditions examined in the present study. Dibenzofuran was the most refractory molecule among the oxygen species. A two-stage reaction configuration at 340 and 360°C improved HDN and HDO reactivities, although the conversions were still insufficient. Increasing the acidity of the support as well as the loading of the metals on the NiMoS/Al2O3 catalysts improved very much the heteroatom reduction to achieve complete removal of nitrogen by two-stage reaction configuration at 340-360°C and oxygen at 360°C, respectively. The addition of H2S in the reaction atmosphere inhibited the HDN reaction but increased markedly the HDO conversion. The acidic support increased the activity in hydrotreatment through enhancing the hydrogenation activity, while H2S maintained the catalyst in a sufficiently sulfided state.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Chemical Engineering(all)
- Fuel Technology
- Energy Engineering and Power Technology
- Organic Chemistry