Analysis of Early Biomarkers Associated with the Development of Critical Respiratory Failure in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)

Hiroyoshi Yamada, Masaki Okamoto, Yoji Nagasaki, Suzuyo Yoshio, Takashi Nouno, Chiyo Yano, Tomohiro Tanaka, Fumi Watanabe, Natsuko Shibata, Yoko Arimizu, Yukako Fukamachi, Yoshiaki Zaizen, Naoki Hamada, Atsushi Kawaguchi, Tomoaki Hoshino, Shigeki Morita

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4 Citations (Scopus)


Certain biomarkers predict death due to acute respiratory distress syndrome in COVID-19 patients. We retrospectively analyzed biomarkers associated with time to mechanical ventilation for respiratory failure due to COVID-19 (time-to-mechanical ventilation) in 135 consecutive patients in our hospital. We analyzed biomarkers that were elevated immediately (at admission) and later (3 days after admission) using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Independent biomarkers of time-to-mechanical ventilation were high C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)-6, and Krebs von den Lungen-6 (KL-6) concentrations at admission and elevated CRP, high-mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB-1), and D-dimer levels and low platelets 3 days after admission. Receiver operating characteristic analysis for detecting the association between independent biomarkers associated with time-to-event in multivariate analyses and the start of mechanical ventilation revealed that these biomarkers had area under the curve values higher than 0.700. The present study suggests that CRP was the only biomarker associated with time-to-mechanical ventilation both at admission and 3 days after admission. Moreover, IL-6 (an inflammatory cytokine), HMGB-1 (a late inflammatory mediator), and KL-6 (reflecting injury and/or remodeling of type II pneumocytes) were associated with outcomes in COVID-19 as reported previously. In conclusion, increased CRP, IL-6, KL-6, HMGB1, and D-dimer levels and decreased platelet counts were associated with the start of mechanical ventilation due to COVID-19.

Original languageEnglish
Article number339
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Clinical Biochemistry


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