p97, an essential chaperone in endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation and organelle biogenesis, contains two AAA domains (D1 and D2) and assembles as a stable hexamer. We present a quantitative analysis of nucleotide binding to both D1 and D2 domains of p97, the first detailed study of nucleotide binding to both AAA domains for this type of AAA+ ATPase. We report that adenosine 5′-O-(thiotriphosphate) (ATPγS) binds with similar affinity to D1 and D2, but ADP binds with higher affinity to D1 than D2, offering an explanation for the higher ATPase activity in D2. Stoichiometric measurements suggest that although both ADP and ATPγS can saturate all 6 nucleotide binding sites in D1, only 3-4 of the 6 D2 sites can bind ATPγS simultaneously. ATPγS binding triggers a downstream cooperative conformational change of at least three monomers, which involves conserved arginine fingers and is necessary for ATP hydrolysis.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology
- Cell Biology