Polymorphisms in the 5'-flanking region of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α gene were examined to study the genetic background of type 1 diabetes in Japanese. Five different biallelic polymorphisms were examined in 136 type 1 diabetic patients and 300 control subjects. The frequencies of individuals carrying TNF-α-857T allele (designated as TNFP-D allele) or -863A/-1,031C allele (designated as TNFP-B allele) were significantly increased in the patients as compared with the controls. Since these TNF-α alleles are in linkage disequilibria with certain DRB1 and HLA-B alleles, two-locus analyses were carried out. The TNFP-D allele did not increase the risk in either the presence or absence of the DRB1*0405 or HLA-B54 allele, while the DRB1*0405 and HLA-B54 alleles per se could confer susceptibility in both the TNFP-D allele positive and -negative populations. Moreover, an odds ratio was remarkably elevated in the population carrying both DRB1*0405 and HLA-B54. Similarly, the TNFP-B allele did not show significant association with the disease in either the HLA-B61-positive or -negative population, while the HLA-B61 allele could significantly increase the risk in the TNFP-B allele-positive population. These data suggest that the associations of TNFP-D and -B alleles may be secondary to their linkage disequilibria with the susceptible HLA class I and class II alleles. Because HLA-B and DRB1 genes were independently associated, both of these genes may be contributed primarily to the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes in Japanese.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Immunology and Allergy