Androgen dependent development of a modified anal fin, gonopodium, as a model to understand the mechanism of secondary sexual character expression in vertebrates

Yukiko Ogino, Hironori Katoh, Gen Yamada

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

75 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Male external genitalia show structural variations among species. Androgenic hormones are essential for the morphological specification of male type copulatory organs, while little is known about the developmental mechanisms of such secondary sexual characters. Western mosquitofish Gambusia affinis may offer a clue to the sexual differentiation researches, because they show a prominent masculine sexual character for appendage development, anal fin to gonopodium (GP) transition, and its formation could be induced in early juvenile fry by exogenously supplied androgens. We show that GP development is promoted by androgen dependent augmentation of sonic hedgehog (Shh) expression. Two AR cDNAs were cloned and identified as ARα and ARβ from western mosquitofish. Both ARs were predominantly expressed in the distal region of outgrowing anal fin rays. Exposure of fry to androgen caused anal fin outgrowth concomitant with the Shh induction in the distal anal fin ray epithelium. When AR signaling was inhibited by its antagonist flutamide in fry, the initial induction of the Shh was suppressed accompanying retarded anal fin outgrowth. Similar suppression of anal fin outgrowth was induced by treatment with cyclopamine, an inhibitor of Shh signaling. These observations indicate that androgen dependent Shh expression is required for anal fin outgrowth leading to the formation of a genital appendage, the GP in teleost fishes. Androgen-induced GP formation may provide insights into the expression mechanism regulating the specification of sexual features in vertebrates.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)119-126
Number of pages8
JournalFEBS Letters
Volume575
Issue number1-3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 24 2004
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biophysics
  • Structural Biology
  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics
  • Cell Biology

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