Annexins are a family of structurally related proteins that bind negatively charged membrane phospholipids in a Ca2+-dependent manner. Annexin A2 (AnxA2), a member of this family, has been implicated in a variety of cellular functions, including the organization of membrane domains, vesicular trafficking, and cell-cell adhesion. AnxA2 generally forms a heterotetrameric complex with a small Ca2+- binding protein, S100A10. Measles virus (MV), a member of the family Paramyxoviridae, is an enveloped virus with a nonsegmented negative-strand RNA genome. Knockdown of AnxA2 greatly reduced MV growth in cells without affecting its entry and viral RNA production. In MV-infected, AnxA2 knockdown cells, the expression level of the matrix (M) protein, but not other viral proteins, was reduced compared with that in control cells, and the distribution of the M protein at the plasma membrane was decreased. The M protein lines the inner surface of the envelope and plays an important role in virus assembly by connecting the nucleocapsid to the envelope proteins. The M protein bound to AnxA2 independently of AnxA2's phosphorylation or its association with S100A10 and was colocalized with AnxA2 within cells. Truncation of the N-terminal 10 amino acid residues, but not the N-terminal 5 residues, compromised the ability of the M protein to interact with AnxA2 and localize at the plasma membrane. These results indicate that AnxA2 mediates the localization of the MV M protein at the plasma membrane by interacting with its N-terminal region (especially residues at positions 6 to 10), thereby aiding in MV assembly.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Insect Science