We have investigated anthocyanins of Asparagus species and A. officinalis cultivars to elucidate the possibility whether the pigment constitution can be used as a new genetic marker in asparagus breeding. Three anthocyanins (designated as A0, A1 and A2, cyanidin glycosides) could be distinguished by HPLC analysis in six Asparagus species/subspecies and 21 A. officinalis cultivars. There was no variation of anthocyanin constitution within species and subspecies, except A. officinalis. A0 is an unique anthocyanin recognized only in A. asparagoides, and A2 has been detected in all the other species. All plants of A. pygmaeus and A. virgatus contained A1, while those of A. asparagoides, A. cochinchinensis, A. setaceus and A. officinalis ssp. prostratus did not. In A. officinalis the presence/absence of A1 was found. All plants of eight diploid, one triploid and one tetraploid cultivars had A1, while eight diploid and four tetraploid cultivars showed individual variation of A1 presence. The ratio A1/A2 was higher in all green cultivars, whereas the reverse was observed in all the purple cultivars. There was no remarkable difference in anthocyanin constitutions between dioecious (A. cochinchinensis, A. officinalis and A. officinalis ssp. prostratus) and hermaphrodite (A. setaceus, A. virgatus, and A. asparagoides) species. Intraspecific crosses of seven combinations were carried out to clarify the inheritance of the anthocyanin constitutions. Segregation of A1 in the crossed progenies indicated that the presence/absence of A1 might be governed by a single locus. It was suggested that the anthocyanin constitution could be a useful marker for genetic studies in asparagus.