We found an antigen-specific factor capable of augmenting delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) in the serum of mice sensitized with heterologous erythrocytes to induce a delayed footpad reaction (DFR), or in the culture supernatant of the mixture of sensitized T cells and specific antigens. This factor (DTH augmentation factor; DAF) was confirmed to augment DTH in transferred recipients. In this paper, such an activity of DAF was further investigated using the system with in vitro induction and local transfer of DTH. DAF also augmented the primary in vitro induction of DTH, when spleen cells from mice transferred with the DAF-containing serum 12 hr previously or spleen cells incubated with the DAF-containing serum on ice for 2 hr were cultured with heterologous erythrocytes. DAF acted on the induction phase of DTH and augmented a typical DTH which was dependent on Thy-1-positive T cells. DAF showed antigen specificity, but was not assigned to conventional immunoglobulin. The activity of DAF was detected when nylon-wool nonadherent cells were incubated with DAF prior to the culture of those cells and antigens, but not detected when only nylon-wool adherent cells were incubated with DAF. Thus, DAF exerted its effect through binding to acceptor cells which were included in nylon-wool nonadherent spleen cells from normal mice.
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