To better image deformation structures within the inner accretionary wedge of the Nankai Trough, Japan, we apply common reflection angle migration to a legacy two-dimensional seismic data set acquired with a 6 km streamer cable. In this region, many seismic surveys have been conducted to study the seismogenic zone related to plate subduction. However, the details of the accreted sediments beneath the Kumano forearc basin are still unclear due to the poor quality of seismic images caused by multiple reflections, highly attenuated signals, and possibly complex geological structures. Generating common image gathers in the subsurface local angle domain rather than the surface offset domain is more advantageous for imaging geological structures that involve complex wave paths and poor illumination. By applying this method, previously unseen structures are revealed in the thick accreted sediments. The newly imaged geometric features of reflectors, such as the folds in the shallow part of the section and the deep reflectors with stepwise discontinuities, imply deformation structures with multiple thrust faults. The reflections within the deep accreted sediments (approximately 5 km) are mainly mapped to far angles (30°–50°) in the common reflection angles, which correspond to the recorded offset distances greater than 4.5 km. This result indicates that the far offset/angle information is critical to image the deformation structures at depth. The new depth image from the common reflection angle migration provides seismic evidence of multiple thrust faults and their relationship with the megathrust fault that is essential for understanding the structure and evolution of the Nankai Trough seismogenic zone.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Geochemistry and Petrology