PURPOSE. To investigate the aqueous and vitreous penetration of levofloxacin, the drug was administered topically and/or orally to patients undergoing vitrectomy. METHODS. Thirty-six patients undergoing initial vitrectomy with phacoemulsification and aspiration (PEA) were enrolled, and were divided randomly into three groups. Group 1 was treated with topical application of levofloxacin (three times on the day before surgery and seven times on the day of surgery), Group 2 received oral administration of levofloxacin (200 mg twice on the day before surgery and 200 mg at 3 hours before surgery), and Group 3 received both topical and oral levofloxacin according to the above schedules. The concentration of levofloxacin was measured in aqueous humor and vitreous fluid samples obtained during surgery. RESULTS. In Groups 1, 2, and 3, the mean levofloxacin concentration in aqueous humor was 0.765±0.624 μg/mL, 1.279±0.440 μg/mL, and 1.823±0.490 μg/mL, respectively, while the mean levofloxacin concentration in vitreous fluid was <0.02 μg/mL, 1.455±0.445 μg/mL, and 1.369±0.530 μg/mL, respectively. CONCLUSIONS. Oral administration of levofloxacin at a dose of 400 mg/day was sufficient for the prophylaxis of ocular infections, because the drug concentrations in both aqueous humor and vitreous fluid were higher than the MIC90 values for major ocular pathogens. Topical application of levofloxacin achieved adequate drug levels in aqueous humor, but not in vitreous fluid, while combined topical and oral administration had an additive effect on the drug concentration in aqueous humor.
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