Background and objectives: Mediastinal germ cell tumor (MGCT) is a relatively rare tumor. Complete resection after chemotherapy is a standard treatment against this disease. However, the risk factors of incomplete resection are unclear. Therefore, we analyzed survival rates and risk factors for incomplete resection based on preoperative imaging. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients (n = 56) with MGCT operated at National Cancer Center Hospital, and analyzed preoperative computed tomography (CT) data in terms of relationship of the tumor and vessels, and investigated survival rate and risk factors for incomplete resection. Results: A total of 56 patients underwent resection of MGCT. The 5-y progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 79% and 83%. In multivariate analysis, complete resection was the only significant prognostic factor for better PFS (hazard ratio (HR) = 9.083, P= 0.00021) and OS (HR = 5.519, P= 0.0445). The preoperative CT finding of arteries (including the aorta, right brachiocephalic artery, left common carotid artery, and left subclavian artery) surrounded by the tumor was a predictor of incomplete resection (odds ratio = 10.089, P= 0.049). Conclusions: Complete resection is essential for improving the survival of MGCT, and the risk stratification using preoperative CT imaging brings important information to achieve the complete resection.
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