Objectives: Thermal therapy is used to manage various psychological diseases, such as depression. We investigated the relationship between hot spring bathing and depression in older adults using questionnaire responses. Design and Setting: We comprehensively evaluated the preventive effects of long-term hot spring bathing in 10429 adults aged ≥ 65 years in Beppu, Japan, by conducting a questionnaire study on the prevalence of depression (n = 219). Main outcome measures: Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a multivariable logistic regression model for history of depression. Results: A separate multivariable logistic regression model for inference showed that female sex (OR, 1.56; 95 % CI, 1.17–2.08; p = 0.002), arrhythmia (OR, 1.73; 95 % CI, 1.18–2.52; p = 0.004), hyperlipidemia (OR, 1.63; 95 % CI, 1.14–2.32; p = 0.006), renal disease (OR, 2.26; 95 % CI, 1.36–3.75; p = 0.001), collagen disease (OR, 2.72; 95 % CI, 1.48–5.02; p = 0.001), allergy (OR, 1.97; 95 % CI, 1.27–3.04; p = 0.002), and habitual daily hot spring bathing (OR, 0.63; 95 % CI, 0.41–0.94; p = 0.027) were independently significantly associated with a history of depression. Conclusions: We found an inverse relationship between habitual daily hot spring bathing and history of depression. Prospective randomized controlled trials on habitual daily hot spring bathing as a treatment for depression are warranted to investigate whether the use of hot springs can provide relief to those with psychiatric and mental health disorders.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Complementary and Manual Therapy
- Complementary and alternative medicine
- Advanced and Specialised Nursing