Association between the ratio of serum arachidonic acid to eicosapentaenoic acid and the presence of depressive symptoms in a general Japanese population: the Hisayama Study

Mao Shibata, Tomoyuki Ohara, Daigo Yoshida, Jun Hata, Naoko Mukai, Hiroyuki Kawano, Shigenobu Kanba, Takanari Kitazono, Toshiharu Ninomiya

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Epidemiological evidence suggests that fish consumption and intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)—namely, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)—confer protection against depression. However, few studies have addressed the influence of the balance between n-3 PUFA and n-6 PUFA in the human body on depression. Methods: A total of 2,529 community-dwelling Japanese residents aged ≥ 40 years were assessed for depressive symptoms (defined as a score of 16 points or more on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale [CES-D]) in 2007. The serum arachidonic acid (AA) /EPA ratio and AA/DHA ratio were measured in frozen samples collected in 2002 and categorized into quartiles. The odds ratios (ORs) for the presence of depressive symptoms were calculated using a logistic regression model. Results: The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 4.3%. There was no significant association between either the serum AA/EPA ratio or AA/DHA ratio and the presence of depressive symptoms. However, subjects with the highest serum AA/EPA ratios (range: 3.28–13.3) had a 4.10 times (95%CI: 1.13–19.80) greater OR for the presence of depressive symptoms than those with the lowest ratios (0.30–1.65) after adjusting for confounding factors in the subgroup with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) ≥ 1.0 mg/L, while no clear association was observed in the subgroup with hs-CRP < 1.0 mg/L. Limitations: Reverse causality is possible due to the cross-sectional study design. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that a higher serum AA/EPA ratio is associated with a greater likelihood of depressive symptoms in subjects with systemic inflammation in the general Japanese population.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)73-79
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Affective Disorders
Volume237
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2018

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Eicosapentaenoic Acid
Arachidonic Acid
Depression
Serum
Population
Docosahexaenoic Acids
Omega-3 Fatty Acids
C-Reactive Protein
Logistic Models
Odds Ratio
Independent Living
Unsaturated Fatty Acids
Human Body
Causality
Epidemiologic Studies
Fishes
Cross-Sectional Studies
Inflammation

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

Cite this

@article{a509ebe818e14eaba43e9a6f94204fe6,
title = "Association between the ratio of serum arachidonic acid to eicosapentaenoic acid and the presence of depressive symptoms in a general Japanese population: the Hisayama Study",
abstract = "Background: Epidemiological evidence suggests that fish consumption and intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)—namely, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)—confer protection against depression. However, few studies have addressed the influence of the balance between n-3 PUFA and n-6 PUFA in the human body on depression. Methods: A total of 2,529 community-dwelling Japanese residents aged ≥ 40 years were assessed for depressive symptoms (defined as a score of 16 points or more on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale [CES-D]) in 2007. The serum arachidonic acid (AA) /EPA ratio and AA/DHA ratio were measured in frozen samples collected in 2002 and categorized into quartiles. The odds ratios (ORs) for the presence of depressive symptoms were calculated using a logistic regression model. Results: The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 4.3{\%}. There was no significant association between either the serum AA/EPA ratio or AA/DHA ratio and the presence of depressive symptoms. However, subjects with the highest serum AA/EPA ratios (range: 3.28–13.3) had a 4.10 times (95{\%}CI: 1.13–19.80) greater OR for the presence of depressive symptoms than those with the lowest ratios (0.30–1.65) after adjusting for confounding factors in the subgroup with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) ≥ 1.0 mg/L, while no clear association was observed in the subgroup with hs-CRP < 1.0 mg/L. Limitations: Reverse causality is possible due to the cross-sectional study design. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that a higher serum AA/EPA ratio is associated with a greater likelihood of depressive symptoms in subjects with systemic inflammation in the general Japanese population.",
author = "Mao Shibata and Tomoyuki Ohara and Daigo Yoshida and Jun Hata and Naoko Mukai and Hiroyuki Kawano and Shigenobu Kanba and Takanari Kitazono and Toshiharu Ninomiya",
year = "2018",
month = "9",
doi = "10.1016/j.jad.2018.05.004",
language = "English",
volume = "237",
pages = "73--79",
journal = "Journal of Affective Disorders",
issn = "0165-0327",
publisher = "Elsevier",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Association between the ratio of serum arachidonic acid to eicosapentaenoic acid and the presence of depressive symptoms in a general Japanese population

T2 - the Hisayama Study

AU - Shibata, Mao

AU - Ohara, Tomoyuki

AU - Yoshida, Daigo

AU - Hata, Jun

AU - Mukai, Naoko

AU - Kawano, Hiroyuki

AU - Kanba, Shigenobu

AU - Kitazono, Takanari

AU - Ninomiya, Toshiharu

PY - 2018/9

Y1 - 2018/9

N2 - Background: Epidemiological evidence suggests that fish consumption and intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)—namely, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)—confer protection against depression. However, few studies have addressed the influence of the balance between n-3 PUFA and n-6 PUFA in the human body on depression. Methods: A total of 2,529 community-dwelling Japanese residents aged ≥ 40 years were assessed for depressive symptoms (defined as a score of 16 points or more on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale [CES-D]) in 2007. The serum arachidonic acid (AA) /EPA ratio and AA/DHA ratio were measured in frozen samples collected in 2002 and categorized into quartiles. The odds ratios (ORs) for the presence of depressive symptoms were calculated using a logistic regression model. Results: The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 4.3%. There was no significant association between either the serum AA/EPA ratio or AA/DHA ratio and the presence of depressive symptoms. However, subjects with the highest serum AA/EPA ratios (range: 3.28–13.3) had a 4.10 times (95%CI: 1.13–19.80) greater OR for the presence of depressive symptoms than those with the lowest ratios (0.30–1.65) after adjusting for confounding factors in the subgroup with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) ≥ 1.0 mg/L, while no clear association was observed in the subgroup with hs-CRP < 1.0 mg/L. Limitations: Reverse causality is possible due to the cross-sectional study design. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that a higher serum AA/EPA ratio is associated with a greater likelihood of depressive symptoms in subjects with systemic inflammation in the general Japanese population.

AB - Background: Epidemiological evidence suggests that fish consumption and intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)—namely, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)—confer protection against depression. However, few studies have addressed the influence of the balance between n-3 PUFA and n-6 PUFA in the human body on depression. Methods: A total of 2,529 community-dwelling Japanese residents aged ≥ 40 years were assessed for depressive symptoms (defined as a score of 16 points or more on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale [CES-D]) in 2007. The serum arachidonic acid (AA) /EPA ratio and AA/DHA ratio were measured in frozen samples collected in 2002 and categorized into quartiles. The odds ratios (ORs) for the presence of depressive symptoms were calculated using a logistic regression model. Results: The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 4.3%. There was no significant association between either the serum AA/EPA ratio or AA/DHA ratio and the presence of depressive symptoms. However, subjects with the highest serum AA/EPA ratios (range: 3.28–13.3) had a 4.10 times (95%CI: 1.13–19.80) greater OR for the presence of depressive symptoms than those with the lowest ratios (0.30–1.65) after adjusting for confounding factors in the subgroup with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) ≥ 1.0 mg/L, while no clear association was observed in the subgroup with hs-CRP < 1.0 mg/L. Limitations: Reverse causality is possible due to the cross-sectional study design. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that a higher serum AA/EPA ratio is associated with a greater likelihood of depressive symptoms in subjects with systemic inflammation in the general Japanese population.

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