Aim: Serum levels of cholesterol absorption and synthesis markers are known to be associated with cardiovascular risk. Individuals with reduced kidney function or chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Hence, we examined the relationship between estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and serum markers of cholesterol absorption and synthesis. Methods: The CACHE (Cholesterol Absorption and Cholesterol synthesis in High-risk patiEnts) Consortium, comprised of 13 research groups in Japan possessing data of lathosterol (Latho, synthesis marker) and campesterol (Campe, absorption marker) measured via gas chromatography, compiled the clinical data using the REDCap system. Among the 3597 records, data from 2944 individuals were utilized for five analyses including this CKD analysis. Results: This study analyzed data from 2200 individuals including 522 hemodialysis patients; 42.3% were female, the median age was 58 years, and the median eGFR was 68.9 mL/min/1.73 m2. Latho, Campe, and Campe/Latho ratio were significantly different when compared across CKD stages. When the associations of eGFR with these markers were assessed with multivariable nonlinear regression models, Latho, Campe, and Campe/Latho ratio showed positive, inverse, and inverse associations with eGFR. These associations were significantly modified by sex, the presence/absence of diabetes mellitus, and the presence/absence of statin use. Conclusion: We showed that individuals with lower eGFR have lower cholesterol synthesis marker levels and higher cholesterol absorption marker levels in this large sample.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Internal Medicine
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
- Biochemistry, medical