This study investigated the association of maternal sleep before and during pregnancy with sleeping and developmental problems in 1-year-old infants. We used data from the Japan Environment and Children’s Study, which registered 103,062 pregnancies between 2011 and 2014. Participants were asked about their sleep habits prior to and during pregnancy. Follow-up assessments were conducted to evaluate the sleep habits and developmental progress of their children at the age of 1 year. Development during infancy was evaluated using the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ). Maternal short sleep and late bedtime before and during pregnancy increased occurrence of offspring’s sleeping disturbances. For example, infants whose mothers slept for less than 6 h prior to pregnancy tended to be awake for more than 1 h (risk ratio [RR] = 1.49, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.34–1.66), sleep less than 8 h during the night (RR = 1.60, 95% CI 1.44–1.79), and fall asleep at 22:00 or later (RR = 1.33, 95% CI 1.26–1.40). Only subjective assessments of maternal sleep quality during pregnancy, such as very deep sleep and feeling very good when waking up, were inversely associated with abnormal ASQ scores in 1-year-old infants.
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