Thermal tides, stationary waves, and general circulation are investigated using a T63 Venus general circulation model (GCM) with solar and thermal radiative transfer in the presence of high-resolution surface topography, based on time average analysis. The simulated wind and static stability are very similar to the observed ones (e.g., Horinouchi et al., 2018; Ando et al., 2020). The simulated thermal tides accelerate an equatorial superrotational flow with a speed of ~90 m s−1 around the cloud-heating maximum (~65 km). The zonal-flow acceleration rates of 0.2–0.5 m s−1 Earth day−1 are produced by both horizontal and vertical momentum fluxes at low latitudes. In the GCM simulation, strong solar heating above the cloud top (>69 km) and infrared heating around the cloud bottom (~50 km) modify the vertical structures of thermal tides and their vertical momentum fluxes, which accelerate zonal flow at 103 Pa (~75 km) and 104 Pa (~65 km) at the equator and around 103 Pa at high latitudes. Below and in the cloud layer, surface topography weakens the zonal-mean zonal flow over the Aphrodite Terra and Maxwell Montes, whereas it enhances the zonal flow in the southern polar region. The high-resolution topography produces stationary fine-scale bow structures at the cloud top and locally modifies the variances in the geographical coordinates (i.e., the activity of unsteady wave components). Over the high mountains, vertical spikes of the vertical wind variance are found, indicating penetrative plumes and gravity waves. Negative momentum flux is also locally enhanced at the cloud top over the equatorial high mountains. In the solar-fixed coordinate system, the variances (i.e., the activity of waves other than thermal tides) of flow are relatively higher on the nightside than on the dayside at the cloud top. Strong dependences of the eddy heat and momentum fluxes on local time are predominant. The local-time variation of the vertical eddy momentum flux is produced by both thermal tides and solar-related, small-scale gravity waves.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Astronomy and Astrophysics
- Space and Planetary Science