Autoimmune gastrointestinal dysmotility (AGID), an idiopathic or paraneoplastic phenomenon, is a clinical form of limited autoimmune dysautonomia. The symptoms of AGID and gastrointestinal manifestations in patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases are overlapping. Antineuronal autoantibodies are often detected in patients with AGID. Autoantibodies play a key role in GI dysmotility; however, whether they cause neuronal destruction is unknown. Hence, the connection between the presence of these autoantibodies and the specific interference in synaptic transmission in the plexus ganglia of the enteric nervous system has to be determined. The treatment options for AGID are not well-defined. However, theoretically, immunomodulatory therapies have been shown to be effective and are therefore used as the first line of treatment. Nonetheless, diverse combined immunomodulatory therapies should be considered for intractable cases of AGID. We recommend comprehensive autoimmune evaluation and cancer screening for clinical diagnosis of AGID. Univocal diagnostic criteria, treatment protocols, and outcome definitions for AGID are required for prompt diagnosis and treatment and appropriate management of immunotherapy, which will circumvent the need for surgeries and improve patient outcome. In conclusion, AGID, a disease at the interface of clinical immunology and neurogastroenterology, requires further investigations and warrants cooperation among specialists, especially clinical immunologists, gastroenterologists, and neurologists.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Immunology and Allergy