ABSTRACT: We evaluated the clinical characteristics of autoimmune manifestations (AIMs) associated with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) to elucidate whether AIMs impacted MDS outcomes in Japan.This retrospective study including 61 patients who received a new diagnosis of MDS between January 2008 and December 2015 was conducted by the review of electronic medical records for the presence of AIMs within a 1-year period prior to or following the diagnosis of MDS.AIMs were identified in 12 of the 61 (20.0%) patients with MDS. The neutrophil counts and C-reactive protein levels in peripheral blood were significantly elevated in patients with AIMs, and the survival was shorter in those with AIMs compared to those without AIMs. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the presence of AIMs and higher-risk disease according to the International Prognositic Scoring System (IPSS) were independent risk factors for increased mortality (hazard ratio, 4.76 and 4.79, respectively).This retrospective study revealed that the prognosis was poor in patients with MDS-associated AIMs. The treatment of MDS using the current algorithms is based on prognostic scoring systems such as IPSS. Treatment strategies for patients with MDS-associated AIMs should be reconsidered, even in those with low-risk MDS according to the IPSS.
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