The safety and efficacy of myeloablative therapy followed by autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (ABSCT) for acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) were evaluated in 60 patients. Peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) were collected during recovery after consolidation chemotherapy. High-dose chemotherapy consisting of busulfan (16 mg/kg), etoposide (40 mg/kg), and cytosine arabinoside (3g/m2x4) (BEA regimen) was used for pretransplant conditioning in 13 patients. For the remaining 47 patients, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) was administered concurrently with the BEA regimen during conditioning. Unpurged, cryopreserved PBSC containing a median number of 5.4 x 108 MNC/kg or 12 x 104 CFU-GM/kg were reinfused at transplantation. The median number of days to granulocytes exceeding 500/μl and last platelet transfusion were 15 (8-44) and 24 (0- > 180), respectively. The 3-year probabilities of disease-free survival (DFS) and relapse were 78.6 and 21.4% for patients transplanted in first remission, 29.6 and 64.4% for those in second or third remission, and 11.1 and 77.8% for those in relapse, respectively. There were no transplant-related deaths within 100 days of transplantation. Age, disease status at transplantation, and number of induction chemotherapies to first complete remission were risk factors affecting the outcome of ABSCT. These results of ABSCT for AML in first remission warrant a prospective study of ABSCT as post-remission therapy.
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